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Biblio:6113

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1. M Komathi A/P Marappan - October 13, 2011

Dear Dr. Rubrico, I this is my assignment….

Annoted Bibliography: (PBGS6113 – Research in Second Language Acquisition)

NAME : M KOMATHI A/P MARAPPAN
MATRIC NO. : PGP110017
ASSIGNMENT DUE:14TH OCT. 2011 (Week 5)

Research Topic: The use of storytelling in promoting vocabulary acquisition among children between 7 to 9 years old.

Abbott, M. L. Nicholas, B. J., & Rossiter, M. J. (2011). The power of story in the ESL classroom. The Canadian Modern Language Review, 67(2), 247-268.

This case study was conducted to examine the use of learners’ personal stories in the ESL classrooms. A small group of five instructors and nine students who were enrolled in ESL classes at a settlement agency in Edmonton were interviewed to gather their perspectives on the use of stories in ESL classrooms. The interviews revealed that instructors and learners are all enthusiastic the use of stories in the classroom.

Cain, K. , Oakhill, J. , & Elbro, C. (2003). The ability to learn new word meanings from context by school-age children with and without language comprehension difficulties. Journal of Child Language, 30(3), 681-694.

This study examines the role of narrative contexts in meaning inference for children, especially to see if children with weak reading comprehension skills can successfully infer meanings of new words with the aid of narrative contexts. Seven and eight year old children from East Sussex and Nottingham were divided into two groups of fifteen. The children were asked to infer the meaning of a certain word before reading the story and again afterwards. It was finally concluded based on the results that children with poor reading skills were just as likely as their skilled peers in producing appropriate response.

Dracup, M. (January 01, 2008). Role Play in Blended Learning: A Case Study Exploring the Impact of Story and Other Elements. Australasian Journal of Educational Technology, 24, 3, 294-310.

The case study was carried out to explore the effects of the underlying story form might have on students’ learning. It took place in the Deakin University with 51 participants. The participants were given some written tasks in groups to enable them to be familiar with the setting and subject matter before they presented the story in the form of role play. The participants found the role play technique to be effective, enjoyable and related to their own lives. The researcher states that the success of the role play was due to the participative story format.

Graziano-King, J., & Cairns, H. (2006). Acquisition of English comparative adjectives. Educational Administration Abstracts, 41,( 1), 345-373.

The study involves two experiments that investigate the acquisition of English comparative adjective forms Adjective + er and more Adjective with the aid of stories. The study involved seventy four children who were middle-class but diverse in their ethnic background from Bayside Nursery School in Queens and from Redeemer St. John Nursery School in Brooklyn, New York. The children were interviewed individually and were asked to describe the characters of Snow White comparatively as their verbal responses were written down and audiotaped. Initially, the children show preference to either form, secondly, they prefer the suffixation rule and finally, they abandon the general rule and achieve the target. This is a good read for teachers who plan to introduce the comparative adjectives for the first time to their students.

Hodgson, C. (2007). ‘Assessing oracy: storytelling’, Literacy Today, 53, 24-25.

This article presents two case studies that were conducted in two different schools, where, though the study is the same, the subject and the setting are varied. The pupils from the English-medium school as well as the Welsh –medium school are both required to come up with the ending for the Gulliver’s story and tell it to the class individually. English-medium school pupils exceeded expectations by not only successfully telling an ending but also acting it out, while the Welsh-medium school pupils also did well and even invited other class to be their audience. The results reflect the success of promoting speaking and listening skills through storytelling.

Isbell, R., Sobol, J., Lindauer, L., & Lowrance, A. (January 01, 2004). The Effects of Storytelling and Story Reading on the Oral Language Complexity and Story Comprehension of Young Children. Early Childhood Education Journal, 32(3), 157-163.

This study investigates the influence of oral storytelling and story reading on the language development and story comprehension of young children. The study was carried out at the East Tennessee State University campus in Johnson City, Tennessee where 38 three and four year old children were divided into two groups. Group A was told stories while Group B was read to from a book. The children later retold the stories and created their own from pictures books. The findings showed that Group A demonstrated higher story comprehension while Group B exhibited improved language complexity.

Schneider, P., & Dube, R. V. (February 01, 2005). Story Presentation Effects on Children’s Retell Content. American Journal of Speech-Language Pathology, 14(1), 52-60.

The study was conducted to determine whether the students’ retelling of a story is affected by the way the story is presented to them. Forty four students from Kindergarten and Grade 2 in Edmonton, Canada were presented with stories orally, pictorially and a combination both. The students responses were recorded and later The students were able to recount more when the story is told orally compared to the other forms.

Steward, J. A. & Santiago, K. A. (2006). Using literary text to engage language learners in a multilingual community. Foreign Language Annals, 39(4), 683-696.

The study examines the use an autobiography to bring together two groups students; ESL students and Spanish intermediate students in a cross-cultural encounter in Puerto Rico. The students analyse the text and its cultural framework before they meet up with the other group discuss about it. The literature, which is culturally related to the pupils appealed to the pupils as they could relate their experiences to the author’s and share them with their peers. This article is beneficial for teachers who look forward to engage their students in real-world experiences with the community through materials that are culturally related to their students.

Tavıl, Z. M. & Söylemez, A. S. (2008). Vocabulary teaching through storytelling to very young learners in kindergartens. Ekev Academic Review, 12(35), 371.

A study was conducted to evaluate the use of stories to present vocabulary through repetition and in context. The story of Three Little Pigs and The Wolf repeated for three weeks to twelve five year old students from the Yenimahalle Neşeli Adımlar Club-Kindergarten in Ankara. A pre-post test was conducted to determine the students’ knowledge. The students were not able to point at the words before the storytelling, but the results showed that all the students have learned the vocabulary and some were even able to produce them afterwards.

Tekmen, E. A. F., & Daloglu, A. (September 06, 2006). An Investigation of Incidental Vocabulary Acquisition in Relation to Learner Proficiency Level and Word Frequency. Foreign Language Annals, 39, 2, 220-243.

This study investigated the relationship between learners’ incidental vocabulary acquisition and their level of proficiency, and between acquisition and word frequency in the text. Three groups (intermediate, upper intermediate and advanced levels) of Turkish learners of English were tested through Nation’s (1990) Vocabulary Levels Test and a vocabulary test based on the reading text used in the study, which served both as a pre-test a post-test. The results showed significant differences am among the groups, whereby the advanced level group gained most word and the frequency of the vocabulary in the text played an important role in their acquisition of the words. However, this did not apply for the lower level groups.

Winer, Y. (2005). Storytelling abroad. Every Child. 11 (2), 26-27.

The researcher leads a group of authors with little or no knowledge to story-writing to Vanuatu, Africa in an effort to create stories suitable for the native children that are to be distributed as shell books. Challenged by almost no knowledge of the local culture or language, the researcher tries to get an idea at the local agricultural show and Woman’s Cultural Day. The researcher conducts a qualitative research where she starts with shared story reading activity for her writing workshop where discovers that young children eventually love literacy when it is fun and culturally related to them.

Wright, H. H., Fergadiotis, G., Capilouto, G. J., & Srinivasan, C. (June 01, 2011). Story processing ability in cognitively healthy younger and older adults. Journal of Speech, Language, and Hearing Research, 54, 3, 900-917.

This study was conducted to determine the relationships among measures of comprehension and production for stories depicted in wordless pictures books and measures of memory and attention. Sixty participants were divided into two groups according to their ages (younger adults and older adults) who completed cognitive measures discourse tasks such as telling stories based on wordless picture books and answering multiple-choice comprehension questions based on the story. Based on the findings, there were no significant differences between the two groups. This proves that age does not affect story processing.

2. PUSHPA A/P KANDASAMY - October 13, 2011

PUSHPA A/P KANDASAMY
IC NO : 731024-03-5224
MATRIC NO: PGP 110002

Strategies in Improving Writing Performance among ESL Students

ANNOTATED BIBLIOGRAPHY

Armstrong, K.M. (2010). Fluency, accuracy, and complexity in graded and ungraded writing. Foreign Language Annals, 43(4), 690-702. Retrieved 10 October 2011, from
http://ezproxy.um.edu.my:2110/pqdweb?index=1&did=2376423751&SrchMode=3&sid=2&Fmt=3&VInst=PROD&VType=PQD&RQT=309&VName=PQD&TS=1318327492&clientId=18803&aid=2

This study was aimed at investigating the effect of grades on second language writing performance in terms of fluency, accuracy and complexity. 12 samples from an Intermediate Spanish II class were selected and the ANOVA analysis resulted that grades had little effect on student writing, hence more frequent and varied ungraded writing tasks would be a productive pedagogical tool for improving the form and content of ESL student writing.

Bilton, L., & Sivakumar Sivasubramaniam. (2009). An inquiry into expressive writing: A classroom-based study. Language Teaching Research, 13(3), 301-320. Retrieved 07 October 2011, from http://ltr.sagepub.com/content/13/3/301

Fourteen intermediate ESL students from Bahrain University were chosen for a classroom-based case study to see the efficacy of using expressive writing approach. The qualitative data analysis revealed that the students progressed along the continuum of responsiveness with growing pleasure in the opportunity for self-expression leading to increased mastery of the language and more sophisticated thinking.

Bitchener, J., & Knoch, U. (2008). The value of written corrective feedback for migrant and international students. Language Teaching Research, 12(3), 409-431. Retrieved 07 October 2011, from http://ltr.sagepub.com/content/12/3/409

One hundred forty-four intermediate students from New Zealand were chosen for this study to investigate the effectiveness of written corrective feedback (WCF) on ESL writing. ANOVA data analysis indicated that the students who received WCF options outperformed those who did not receive it. However, there was no difference in the extent to which migrant and international students improve the accuracy of their writing as a result of WCF.

Evans, N.W., Hartshorn, J.K., McCollum, R.M., & Wolfersberger, M. (2010). Contextualizing corrective feedback in second language writing pedagogy. Language Teaching Research, 14(4), 445-463. Retrieved 10 October 2011, from
http://ltr.sagepub.com/content/14/4/445

A pilot study to test how dynamic written corrective feedback (WCF) might work was conducted among 27 ESL students who had enrolled to improve their English writing proficiency. The data from holistic and analytical evaluations signified that the students did improve their linguistics accuracy on new writing assignments when this error-correction strategy was implemented.

Ju, Y.L. (2006). The process-oriented ESL writing assessment: Promises and challenges. Journal of Second Language Writing, 15, 307-330. Retrieved 10 October 2011, from
http://ezproxy.um.edu.my:2095/science/journal/10603743/15/4

This study examined how 100 ESL students with various L1 backgrounds took up the opportunity in the process-oriented writing assessment to reflect, interact with others and revise their essays. Results showed that students produced their final drafts in a more coherent manner with complex sentences as indicated by increased analytic as well as holistic scores.

Julio, R.L., Rosa, M., Liz, M., & Javier, M. (2008). The foreign language writer’s strategic behaviour in the allocation of time to writing processes. Journal of Second Language Writing, 17, 30-47. Retrieved 10 October 2011, from
http://ezproxy.um.edu.my:2095/science/journal/10603743/17/1

This study was set up to collect empirical evidence on the allocation of time to different writing activities during the process of creating a text in a non-native language. The quantitative analysis of the 21 ESL samples from Spain demonstrated that formulation took up the largest percentage of composition time and writing processes are differentially distributed depending on the writers’ L2 proficiency level.

Kobayashi, H., & Rinnert, C. (2008). Task response and text construction across L1 and L2 writing. Journal of Second Language Writing, 17, 7-29. Retrieved 10 October 2011, from
http://ezproxy.um.edu.my:2095/science/journal/10603743/17/1

Exploring possible effects of L1 (Japanese) and L2 (English) writing experience on the relationship between task response and text construction in both languages was the aim of this study. 28 students were chosen and it was identified that the intensive L1 provided the basis for constructing texts in both L1 and L2 and the interaction between both the training was found to reinforce the students’ application of the meta-knowledge in L1 and L2 essay writing.

Lundstrom, K., & Baker, W. (2009). To give is better than to receive: The benefits of peer review to the reviewer’s own writing. Journal of Second Language Writing, 18, 30-43. Retrieved 10 October 2011, from
http://ezproxy.um.edu.my:2095/science/journal/10603743/18/1

The purpose of this study was to determine which is more beneficial to improve student writing: giving or receiving peer feedback. 91 samples were administered and the findings via ANOVA analysis gave me insightful information that the givers who focused solely on reviewing peers’ writing made more significant gains in their own writing than did the receivers.

Luxin, Y., & Ling, Z. (2010). Exploring the role of reformulations and a model text in EFL students’ writing performance. Language Teaching Research, 14(4), 464-484. Retrieved 08 October 2011, from http://ltr.sagepub.com/content/14/4/464

Ten students from Beijing Chinese University were sampled in this study to see the effectiveness of reformulation and model text in a three-stage writing task in an EFL classroom. The findings of the mix-method study revealed that, having access to the reformulated text and the model text enabling learners to make cognitive comparisons and notice gaps between their own output and their reformulated versions.

Neomy, S. (2005). Collaborative writing: Product, process, and students’ reflections. Journal of Second Language Writing, 14, 153-173. Retrieved 10 October 2011, from http://ezproxy.um.edu.my:2095/science/journal/10603743/14/3

This mix method study was set out to investigate the product, process and student reflections on collaborative writing among 23 samples from Australia. The findings proved that collaboration afforded students the opportunity to pool ideas and provide each other with feedback thus facilitating them to produce pretty shorter and better texts in terms of task fulfilment, grammatical accuracy and complexity.

Osamu, H. (2007). Output, noticing, and learning: An investigation into the role of spontaneous attention to form in a four-stage writing task. Language Teaching Research, 11(4), 459-479. Retrieved 07 October 2011, from http://ltr.sagepub.com/content/11/4/459.refs.html

In a four-stage writing task consisting of output, comparison and two revisions, this study examined the role of spontaneous focus on form in L2 writing and the potentially unique role of native speaker models as a feedback tool. The quantitative results of 37 participants from Japan demonstrated that they noticed overwhelmingly lexical features as they autonomously identified their respective problems and found solutions through models besides incorporating them in subsequent revisions.

Shih, C.C. (2011). Discourse organization in high school students’ writing and their teachers’ writing instruction: The case of Taiwan. Foreign Language Annals, 44(2), 417-435. Retrieved 10 October 2011, from
http://ezproxy.um.edu.my:2110/pqdweb?index=3&did=2376425041&SrchMode=3&sid=1&Fmt=3&VInst=PROD&VType=PQD&RQT=309&VName=PQD&TS=1318326758&clientId=18803&aid=1

This study was conducted in Taiwan to compare the discourse organization in compositions used by 216 Chinese students. The mix-method findings of the 432 writing samples collected regardless of whether they wrote in Chinese or English had given me an additional input that, while most students adopted the deductive (direct) approach by locating the thesis statement in the introductory paragraph, different patterns of discourse organization did exist.

Shui, F. L., & Yin, K.L. (2007). The roles of instructional practices and motivation in writing performance. The Journal of Experimental Education, 75(2), 145-164. Retrieved 08 October 2011, from
http://www.mendeley.com/research/beginning-writers-articulate-demonstrate-understanding-act-writing/

In a study carried out among 209 secondary school Chinese students in Hong Kong, it was found out via quantitative data analysis that students’ motivation mediated the effects of instructional practices on writing performance which had indirectly addressed the aim of the study. It was a good reading for me to say that when teachers adopted more motivating teaching strategies, the students would be more motivated, hence enabling them to perform better in writing skills.

Van Weijian, D., Van den Bergh, H., Rijlaarsdam, G., & Sanders, T. (2009). L1 use during L2 writing: An empirical study of a complex phenomenon. Journal of Second Language Writing, 18, 235-250. Retrieved 10 October 2011, from
http://ezproxy.um.edu.my:2095/science/journal/10603743/18/4

This study was to examine writers’ use of their first language (L1) while writing in their second language (L2). The mixed-method data analysis of the 20 ESL samples whose L1 was Dutch had given me some input that all participants used their L1 while writing in their L2 to some extent although this varied among conceptual activities assigned through a multiple-task-writer design.

Xiao, L. (2008). Exploring a socio-cultural approach to writing strategy research: Mediated actions in writing activities. Journal of Second Language Writing, 17, 217-236. Retrieved 10 October 2011, from
http://ezproxy.um.edu.my:2095/science/journal/10603743/17/4

Two English majors in a Chinese university were sampled in this study to explore a socio-cultural approach to writing strategy research by drawing on mediation and Activity Theory. The qualitative data analysis showed that both the students’ cognition existed not only within the confines of their bodies but also in the socio-cultural context, thus contributing to produce good essays with various mediated strategies.

PUSHPA A/P KANDASAMY - December 3, 2011

Dear Dr. Jessie
Here are the additional articles related to my topic that I managed to find from ISI Journals. thank you

Nguyen, T.M.H. (2010). Preservice EFL teachers’ attitudes, needs, and experiences about teaching writing and learning to teach writing before their practicum: A case study in Vietnam. Asian EFL Journal, 12(2), 43-67. Retrieved from
http://www.asian-efl-journal.com/June_2010_htn_php

Examining pre-service EFL teachers’ attitudes, needs and experiences about learning to teach writing in English before practicum was the aim of the study and 97 respondents from Vietnam were chosen as the samples. The researcher, Hoa Thi Mai Nguyen used an open ended questionnaire to collect data before the final practicum and the descriptive statistical analysis had demonstrated that these pre-service ESL teachers were motivated to learn to teach English in general and teaching writing in particular. However, they required enthusiastic and constructive mentors to model effective teaching practices and share their teaching experiences. This article is useful for my research topic as it gives me insightful information to which effective teaching practices in writing are essential.

Wang, H., & Sui, D. (2006). Measuring coherence in Chinese EFL major’s writing through LSA (Latent Semantic Analysis). The Asian EFL Journal, 10(2), 1-24. Retrieved 29 September 2011, from http://www.asian-efl-journal.com/pta_april_06_hw&ds.php

This paper presented an investigation into the use of decomposition in Latent Semantic Analysis (LSA) to analyse textual coherence. 70 English majors in the school of Foreign languages were randomly sampled as they make fewer grammatical mistakes in their writing but their main problem was that lacking of coherence and cohesion. The result of the investigation via statistical analysis had shown that LSA could measure the textual coherence objectively and appropriately and had contributed significantly to their overall writing coherence. The author has stated his argument and given me a platform for my research that close attention should be paid to the cultivation of textual coherence in the teaching of writing in ESL classrooms.

Wenyu, L., & Yang, L. (2008). Research on EFL writing strategy using SRP: An impirical study in DUT. Asian EFL Journal, 10(2), 51-83. Retrieved from
http://www.asian-efl-journal.com/June_o8_lw_php

In the present study, Liu Wenyu had focused on the writing strategies of Chinese college EFL writers. 60, with different levels of writing proficiency EFL learners were sampled for this study which was aimed at analysing the relations among their writing proficiency, writing strategy and writing scores. As for the data analysis, questionnaire and Stimulated Recall Protocol (SRP) were utilized. The result of the correlation tests had shown that the composition scores correlate positively with the writing proficiency of the writers and as for the writing strategy it had correlated with only one; translation. However, another finding had revealed that both English majors and non-English majors could not handle the strategy of coherence well even though significant differences in strategy used between the two groups were existed. Hence, this article will form as complementary information for my research on implementing a new strategy or technique in developing coherent paragraphs.

3. LEE HUAN YIK (PGP 110012) - October 13, 2011

Research Topic: Improving oral reading fluency through guided reading activities among Malaysian primary school ESL learners

Benjamin, R. G. and Schwanenflugel, P. J. (2010), Text complexity and oral reading prosody in young readers. Reading Research Quarterly, Vol. 45, (4) 388- Retrieved 11/10/2011 http://www.jstor.org/stable/20779538

The purpose of the study was to examine the impact of text difficulty on the oral reading prosody of young children. Text difficulty had an impact on children’s oral reading on three of the four prosody vari ables, and fluent children read more expressively than less fluent children. It is proposed that good reading prosody is used by children to assist in comprehending the more difficult text.

Cummings, K., Dewey, E., Latimer, R., & Good, R. (2011). Pathways to word reading and decoding: The roles of automaticity and accuracy. School Psychology Review, 40(2), 284-295. Retrieved October 11, 2011, from ProQuest Education Journals.

The purpose of this article is to describe the relationship of initial skill and rate of progress on a measure of the alphabetic principle, Nonsense Word Fluency (NWF), to first-grade reading outcomes as measured by Oral Reading Fluency (ORF). The study was conducted on first-grade students across 12 school districts. After controlling for both NWF initial skill and progress over the year, decoding strategy added explanatory value to the prediction of end of first grade ORF outcomes.

Ediger, M.. (2010). Which plan of reading instruction is best? Journal of Reading Improvement, 47(3), 138-141. Retrieved October 11, 2011, from ProQuest Education Journals.

The article lays out the different philosophies of reading instruction and suggestions of using the Big Book and Phonic Approach as effective reading instructions. The question arises from the article is, “Which plan assists pupils to best become fluent readers?”

Ehri, L. C., Dreyer, L. G., Flugman, B., Gross, A. (2007). Reading Rescue: An Effective Tutoring Intervention Model for Language-Minority Students Who Are Struggling Readers in First Grade. American Educational Research Journal, Vol. 44,2, 414-http://www.jstor.org/stable/30069443 .Accessed: 11/10/2011 05:44

The Reading Rescue tutoring intervention model was investigated with 64 low-socioeconomic status, language-minority first graders with reading difficulties. The majority of tutored students reached average reading levels whereas the majority of controls did not. However, contrary to conventional wisdom , esults suggest that students make greater gains when they read text at an independent level than at an instructional level.

Ford, M., & Opitz, M.. (2011). Looking Back to Move Forward with Guided Reading. Reading Horizons, 50(4), 225-240. Retrieved October 11, 2011, from ProQuest Education Journals.

The authors take a look back at the 50-year history of this practice, provide a definition of guided reading, analyze what caused the practice to change, and discuss their own perspectives and predict the future of guided reading. The journal provides an in-depth understanding of guided reading as a means to effectively nurtures and supports both reading and readers.

Glasswell, K., & Ford, M.. (2010). Teaching flexibly with leveled texts: More power for your reading block. The Reading Teacher, 64(1), 57-60. Retrieved October 11, 2011, from ProQuest Education Journals.

The article suggests ways to choose texts to suit leaners’ level to maximize reading fluency. The writer also recommends some powerful ways to engage learners such as shared reading, guided reading and independent reading.

Kim, J., Samson, J., Fitzgerald, R., & Hartry, A.. (2010). A randomized experiment of a mixed-methods literacy intervention for struggling readers in grades 4-6: effects on word reading efficiency, reading comprehension and vocabulary, and oral reading fluency. Reading and Writing, 23(9), 1109-1129. Retrieved October 11, 2011, from ProQuest Education Journals.

The purpose of this study was (1) to examine the causal effects of READ 180, a mixed-methods literacy intervention, on measures of word reading efficiency, reading comprehension and vocabulary, and oral reading fluency. Although READ 180 had a positive impact on oral reading fluency and attendance, these effects were restricted to children in Grade 4.

Kuhn, M. R., Schwanenflugel, P. J., Meisinger, E. B., Levy, B. A., Rasinski, T. V. (2010).
Aligning Theory and Assessment of Reading Fluency: Automaticity, Prosody, and Definitions of Fluency. Reading Research Quarterly, Vol. 45(2), 230-251. Retrieved 11/10/2011 http://www.jstor.org/stable/20697184

This article attempts to expand this understanding by synthesizing several key aspects of research on reading fluency, including theoretical perspectives surrounding automaticity and prosody. the implications of these definitions for current assessment and instruction are considered along with suggestions for reenvisioning fluency’s role within the literacy curriculum.

Lesaux, N. K.; Kieffer, M. J. (2010) Exploring sources of reading comprehension difficulties among language minority learners and their classmates in early adolescence. American Educational Research Journal 47(3), 596-632.

This study explores the nature of reading comprehension difficulties among early adolescent language minority (LM) learners (Sixth-grade students) and native English speakers in urban schools. The majority of struggling readers were found to have developed basic fluency skills. The findings demonstrate the need for middle schools to identify why students are having comprehension difficulties and to target instruction to meet their specific needs, given the wide variation in the struggling reader population.

Lo, Y., Cooke, N., & Starling, A. (2011). Using a repeated reading program to improve generalization of oral reading fluency. Journal of Education & Treatment of Children, 34(1), 115-140. Retrieved October 11, 2011, from ProQuest Education Journals.

Three second-grade students in the southeast region of the United States at-risk for reading failure participated in an adult-directed repeated reading programme that integrated isolated word reading practice, unison reading, error correction, and performance cueing and feedback procedures. Using a multiple probe across participants design, study shows that the repeated reading program improved all participants’ oral reading rates on the grade level transfer passages.

Macalister, J. (2011) Today’s teaching, tomorrow’s text: Exploring the teaching of reading. ELT Journal 65 (2): 161-169.

This article discusses and exemplifies these concerns and proposes a framework that can assist teachers plan lessons that help learners to read better. The author also suggests alternatives to comprehension questions, the essence of making sense of what we have read and reflections based on the implementation of the frameworks proposed.

Paige, D. (2011). 16 minutes of “Eyes-on-Text” can make a difference: Whole-class choral reading as an adolescent fluency strategy. Reading Horizons, 51(1),
1-20. Retrieved October 11, 2011, from ProQuest Education Journals.

This article investigates wholeclass choral reading (WCCR) within the context of a sixth-grade language arts setting for the purpose of improving oral reading fluency skills with narrative text. In this quasi-experimental study involving 112 students, WCCR was implemented on a daily basis with students utilizing the repeated reading of narrative text. Results suggest that students improved both phonological decoding and oral reading fluency skills with moderate effect sizes.

Sheila W. V., Smith, A. T., Reece, A. M., Li, M., Wixson, K. K., Newman, H.. (2010) Oral reading fluency assessment: Issues of construct, criterion, and consequential validity. Reading Research Quarterly, Vol. 45 (3) 270-291.

This study investigated multiple models for assessing oral reading fluency, including 1-minute oral reading measures that produce scores reported as words correct per minute (wcpm). Oral reading data and standardized comprehension test scores were analyzed for students in grades 2, 4, and 6 in Pacific Northwest school districts that had diverse student populations from four elemen tary schools and three middle schools. The results indicate that assessments designed to include multiple indicators of oral reading fluency provided a finer-grained understanding of oral reading fluency and fluency assessment.

Souto-Manning, M.. (2010). Accelerating Reading Inequities in the Early Years. Language Arts, 88(2), 104-113. Retrieved October 11, 2011, from ProQuest Education Journals.

This article offers insights into the relationship between a reading programme that is (over)determined by scores, multiple choice questions, and book levels and the ways in which children, parents, and a teacher worked together to maintain their commitment to fostering and sustaining a more equitable community of learners through examples of case studies.

Wise, J., Sevcik, R., Morris, R., Lovett, M., Wolf, M., Kuhn, M., Meisinger, B., & Schwanenflugel, P. (2010). The relationship between different measures of oral reading fluency and reading comprehension in second-grade students. Language, Speech & Hearing Services in Schools (Online), 41(3), 340-348. Retrieved October 11, 2011, from ProQuest Education Journals.

The purpose of this study was to examine whether different measures of oral reading fluency relate differentially to reading comprehension performance in two samples of second-grade students. Results of this study indicate that real-word oral reading fluency was the strongest predictor of reading comprehension and suggest that real-word oral reading fluency may be an efficient method for identifying potential reading comprehension difficulties.

Yesil-Dagli, U. (2011). Predicting ELL students’ beginning first grade English oral reading fluency from initial kindergarten vocabulary, letter naming, and phonological awareness skills. Early Childhood Research Quarterly. 26(1), p. 15-29

The purpose of this study was to investigate the predictive role of English letter naming fluency, initial sound fluency, and vocabulary skills at the time of kindergarten entry for first grade English oral reading fluency and to examine the variability in language and literacy skills of ELL students by their demographic characteristics. The data for this study came from the Progress Monitoring and Reporting Network (PMRN), and were collected from Florida’s “Reading First” schools. The results of this study revealed that kindergarten English letter naming fluency was the best predictor and vocabulary skills were the second best predictor of oral reading fluency in the first grade, followed by initial sound fluency.

drjessie - October 15, 2011

Where is the link to the ProQuest Education Journals?

LEE HUAN YIK (PGP 110012) - November 30, 2011

Some of the journals posted here are non-ISI because most of the ISI journals that i had found were not related to my topic. The ones that i included here were more useful for my research and very relevant for my topic. I had done my literature research thoroughly and i had even changed my topic a few times, still i could not find many that were related and relevant to my topic. I am sorry, Dr Jessie.

LEE HUAN YIK (PGP 110012) - November 30, 2011

Many of the ISI journals i found that were related were either inaccessible (had to buy the journal) or outdated (before 2005). Hope i have justified myself reasonably.

4. Connie Sim - October 13, 2011

CONNIE SIM SIEW YUNG
(PGP110021)

Vocabulary Acquisition in Young ESL Learners

Duursma, E., Romero-Contreras, S., Szuber, A., Proctor, P., Snow, C., August, D., et al. (2007). The role of home literacy and language environment on bilinguals’ English and Spanish vocabulary development [Electronic version]. Applied Psycholinguistics, 28, 171-190

This quantitative research was conducted on 96 fifth-grade Latino English language learners in the United States to identify the role of home literacy and language environment on their vocabulary development. The results demonstrated the importance of understanding these two factors that contributed positively to the vocabulary development for both Spanish and English language.

Goldberg, H., Paradis, J., & Crago,M. (2008). Lexical acquisition over time in minority first language children learning English as a second language [Electronic version]. Applied Psycholinguistics, 29, 41-65

The longitudinal study was about various factors that influence children’s lexical acquisition in learning English as a second language (ESL) carried out on 19 children in Edmonton, Canada. Interviews and spontaneous speech data were collected and later, graphs were drawn. It was found that the usage of the semantically flexible verb do was used differently according to the children’s first language.

Horst, M., White, J., & Bell, P. (2010). First and second language knowledge in the language classroom [Electronic version]. International Journal of Bilingualism, 14(3), 331-349

The study was on how language instruction can be designed to help learners build on first language (L1) knowledge in acquiring a new language. It was conducted on a class of 48 students in their fourth and fifth year who attended a French-medium primary school in Montreal which offered a 10-month intensive ESL programme. Lessons were videotaped, data were collected and the teachers were interviewed. It was discovered that making links to English through their first language could enrich the learning contexts and indirectly, their vocabulary bank.

Inbar-Lourie, O. (2010). English only? The linguistic choices of teachers of young EFL learners [Electronic version]. International Journal of Bilingualism, 14(3), 351-367.

This was a research conducted on the linguistic choices of six teachers teaching EFL to young learners in Arab to explore their linguistic choices. Data were collected by classroom observations, the teacher’s self-report questionnaires and semi-structured interviews. They recognised the benefits of L1 as a tool in teaching these young learners in instances on the teaching of L2 vocabulary.

Jia, G., Aarson, D. (2003). A longitudinal study of Chinese children and adolescents learning English in the United States[Electronic version]. Applied Psycholinguistics, 24, 131-160

This longitudinal study was done for 3 years on ten native Chinese-speaking children and adolescents who immigrated to the United States between ages 5 and 16. One of the factors studies was their proficiency in their L2, English as well as their L1, Chinese which were measured quantitatively and qualitatively. One of the results portrayed some preliminary evidence that L1 proficiency impacts L2 lexical acquisition.

Laufer, B., & Girsai, N. (2008). Form-focused instruction in second language vocabulary learning: A case for contrastive analysis and translation [Electronic version]. Applied Linguistics, 29(4), 694-716

This descriptive research examined the effect of explicit contrastive analysis and translation activities on the incidental acquisition of single words and collocations on seventy-five Hebrew native speakers who was learning English as a foreign language in the framework of the Israeli curriculum. It was evident that in vocabulary acquisition, L2 learners may benefit from contrastive form-focused instruction in selected L2 areas by raising their awareness of interlingual difficulties, stretching their linguistics resources, and engaging in involving tasks.

Nation, P. (2005). Teaching Vocabulary [Electronic version]. Asian EFL Journal, 7(3), 4

This article presented in-depth explanation on various ways and strategies that teachers could employ to teach vocabulary as well as methods to link learners’ L1 and L2 together. It was mentioned that deliberate vocabulary teaching is identified as one of the least efficient ways of developing learners’ vocabulary knowledge but nonetheless it is an important part of a well-balanced vocabulary programme.

Quiroz, B.G., Snow, C.E., & Zhao, J. (2010). Vocabulary skills of Spanish-English bilinguals: impact of mother-child language interactions and home language and literacy support [Electronic version]. International Journal of Bilingualism, 14(4), 379-399

In a survey done through home visits of 250 children in Massachusetts and Maryland as well as a comparison sample of 150 children in Puerto Rico who spoke Spanish as at least one of the languages at home, the impact of home language and literacy support on English vocabulary skills was identified. Data were collected, analysed and charts were drawn, leading to the findings that the interactions and support at home is essential to positively affect children’s vocabulary acquisition in English.

Schmitt, N. (2008). Instructed second language vocabulary learning [Electronic version] Language Teaching Research, 12(3), 329–363

This article provided general information on the current research on second language vocabulary learning. Different areas of the challenges of vocabulary learning, issues in the acquisition and pedagogy as well as intentional and incidental learning of vocabulary had been discussed in depth in the article. In sum, all the different aspects complemented one another in order to achieve effective vocabulary learning.

Serratrice, L. (2005). Language mixing and learning strategy [Electronic version]. International Journal of Bilingualism, 9(2), 159-177

This paper investigated the relationship between language mixing and learning strategy of an English-Italian bilingual child who was born in Scotland in comparison to the findings reported by Vihman (1999). Data were collected, recordings were audio as well as videotaped and charts were drawn and analysed. L1 was used extensively in eliciting the child’s responses for words and phrases in L2. However, it was found that language mixing is not an unavoidable consequence as other factors may also affect bilingual acquisition.

Shintani, N. (2011). A comparative study of the effects of input-based and production-based instruction on vocabulary acquisition by young EFL learners [Electronic version]. Language Teaching Research, 15(2), 137–158

In a study conducted at a private English school in Japan on 36 Japanese children aged 6 to 8, comparisons were drawn on the effects of input-based and production-based instruction on young EFL learners’ vocabulary acquisition. The study employed a quasi-experimental pre-test–post-test design. It was found that both input-based tasks and production activities could be successfully implemented in EFL classrooms for young beginners and were as effective where vocabulary learning is concerned.

Sieh, Y. (2008). A possible role for the first language in young learners’ processing and storage of foreign language vocabulary. Annual Review of Education, Communication, and Language Sciences, 5, 136-160. Retrieved 10 October 2011, from http://research.ncl.ac.uk/ARECLS/volume5.html

This research was carried out on sixty-four pupils from two fourth grade classes in a suburban elementary school in southern Taiwan to identify the role played by the first language (L1) in young learners’ processing and storage of English vocabulary in (EFL) context through a series of written and online vocabulary assessments. From the results, it was suggested that there is a possible role for the L1 in young learners’ processing and storage of the FL vocabulary.

Wolter, B. (2006). Lexical network structures and L2 vocabulary acquisition: The role of L1 lexical/conceptual knowledge [Electronic version]. Applied Linguistics, 27(4), 741-747.

The paper presented theories on how learners might draw on the lexical knowledge of L1 in the process of learning words in the L2. It was suggested that this may be both a help and a hindrance when forming L2 connections, particularly in respect to collocations. However, one of the conclusions drawn is that L2 learners may rely as well as connect their L1 knowledge to L2 and only reconstruct when necessary if the existing knowledge proves to be insufficient.

Connie Sim - December 5, 2011

The article by Nation, P. (2005) was chosen as there were suggested ideas on the types of activities that I could possible carry out in the teaching of Vocabulary. Additionally, the article by Sieh, Y. (2008) was directly related to my research topic and significantly cleared the doubts I had. Although these articles are non-ISI, they were essential aids to providing the pathway to the research I intended to carry out.

5. Doreen - October 13, 2011

Dear Dr. Rubrico,
My assignment…

Name : DORENDA BIONO
Student ID : PGA070280

PBGS 6113 RESEARCH IN SECOND LANGUAGE ACQUISITION

ANNOTATED BIBLIOGRAPHY

Abdul Rashid Md., Mahani Tumin, & Hamzah Omar. (2008). Success structure for accelerated acquisition of English by young ESL learners. Academic Journals, 3(4), 169-181.

This ethnographic case study conducted in Malaysia addresses five 5 and 6 year old learners in the ESL programme were put in a linguistic learning environment. The environment comprises of brainstorming, simple lesson, hands on and maximize use of the language. Results drawn from the interviews, portfolios, field notes and biographies indicated that the supportive environment had boost the learners’ confidence and language usage.

Alhosani, N.M. (2008). Utilizing the writing process approach with English as a second language writers: A case study of five fifth grade ESL Arab students. A PHD dissertation.

This qualitative study focused on the role of writing process approach in developing writing ability of elementary students in north eastern Kansas with five fifth graders and four ESL teachers. The study investigated (1) the roles of ESL teachers when using the writing approach to teach writing to the five fifth graders and (2) the role of the writing process approach in the writing development of the fifth graders. Data were obtained from classroom observation; interviews with the teachers and students; student think-aloud protocols; and student written products. Findings recommended utilizing the writing process approach as an effective method to improve the students’ writing ability.

Corden, R. (2007). Developing reading-writing connections: The impact of explicit instructions of literacy devices on the quality of children’s narrative writing. Journal of Research in Childhood Education, 21 (3), 269-289.

This study investigates the effect of explicit instructions over children’s writing using the mentor texts as the literacy devices. A number of eighteen teachers as research partners were involved in nine elementary schools in UK. Using the problem-solving approach, the literacy session was carried out by the research partners reading aloud narrative mentor texts to the children. The activity followed by writing workshop that ended one hour weekly. The findings suggested the children developed meta language for them to use in their written texts.

Drexler, W., Dawson, K., & Ferdig, R.E. (2006). Collaborative blogging as a means to develop elementary expository writing. Electronic Journal Education, 6, 140-160.

The study examines the collaborative blogging between pre-service teachers and eighteen 3rd graders of West Central Florida. The teacher’s inquiry method had improved their own practices whereas the students using the Kidz Blog developed sentence structures and five paragraph essay. The results revealed that blogging improve students’ writing through knowledge transfer, technology skills, develop visual literacy.

Huang, Y.C. (2009). Writing wordless picture books to facilitate English writing. Asian EFL Journal, 38, 20-38

This one year qualitative case study employs the use of wordless picture books to improve student’s writing. Forty university students with elementary level proficiency were required to write a story using wordless pictures. Majority of the students mentioned the activity was interesting and they agreed to use this method in keeping them learning English.

Hoa, T.M.N., & Hudson, P. (2009). Pre-service EFL teachers’ attitudes, needs and experiences about teaching writing and learning to teach writing before their practicum: A case study in Vietnam. Asian EFL Journal, 43-67.

This survey investigates pre-service teachers’ attitudes, thoughts and experiences of learning to teach writing six weeks before going into schools. Both researchers administered open-ended questionnaires to 97 pre-service teachers. The data were analyzed and the results showed that the teachers are motivated in learning to teach writing provided mentors to model them effective teaching practices and constructive feedback.

Lassche, G. (2009). Young language learner assessment: A case study for using assessment portfolios. Asian EFL Journal 35, 28-46.

The author discusses the use of portfolio assessment to accommodate learner’s feedback, needs and development over a period of learning. It is also use for assessing the quality of teaching and impact on learning from growth and literacy factors and vulnerability issues. Evaluation is required to cater individual learner’s needs and in ensuring enjoyable, simple and trustworthy learning environment.

Kennedy, S. (2010). Corrective feedback for learners of varied proficiency levels: A teacher’s choices. TESL Canada Journal, 27 (2), 31-51.

The author examines the corrective feedback given by a teacher to her fifteen ESL learners based on their proficiency level. The study was conducted in a grade one classroom in Chinatown, US for a period of two months. CLAN software was used to analyze the children’s transcripts which resulted differences in types of errors and types of feedback the teacher provided. As such, further suggestions to this activity are; to cater learners of varied proficiency levels, assessing learners’ reactions towards feedback as well as to create effective feedback.

Normah Othman. (2009). Teaching and assessing three types of direct writing in Malaysian classrooms. English Language Journal, 3, 115-124.

The myth of exam-oriented in Malaysian classrooms inspired the author to conduct a survey over sixty secondary school ESL teachers. The open-ended questionnaires focused on how the teachers teach and assess their students’ guided, summary and continuous writing. Results of the analysis affirmed that ESL teachers were overly exam-oriented with regards to students’ direct writing. Suggestions of more scoring method that are less exam-oriented to be applied in the classrooms for teachers to validate students’ assessment and keep track of students’ progress in order to improve learning environment.

Paquette, K. P., & Fello, S. E. (2010). Using open-mind portraits as a springboard to expository text writing. Childhood Education, 86(4), 234-240.

The study adopts the art-based approach as in open-mind portraits strategy to improve students’ expository writing. The one week classroom study involved a number of 105 of 4th, 5th and 6th graders from Indiana, Pennsylvania. Data drawn from students’ written texts were analyzed and the results showed evidences of students’ improvement in vocabulary understanding, production of words and ideas and written expression from art.

Schleppegrell, M.J., & Go, A.L. (2007). Analyzing the writing of English learners: A functional approach. Language Arts, 84(6), 529-538.

The one year case study of four elementary students examines the functional linguistics approach where subjects were required to write their thoughts and feelings daily. Students’ written texts were analyzed and the significant language features were indentified. The approach provides ways of relating meaning and structure that assist students to write effectively.

Schulz, M.M. (2009). Effective writing assessment and instruction for young English language learners. Early Childhood Education Journal, 37, 57-62.

Schulz lists the use of relevant writing assessments; self checklists, conferences and portfolios and writing strategies inclusive of four different approaches; language experiences, shared writing, interactive writing, and independent writing in the early childhood classroom. These elements are believed to provide learners opportunities to write better.

Vechter, A., & Brierley, C. (2009). Paper partners: A peer-led talk-aloud academic writing programme for students whose first language of academic study is not English. TESL Canada Journal, 26 (2), 125-

The article looks into the progress of the peer mentoring programme by seven undergraduate trained student-facilitators. The programme was based on feedback among the team members and a talk-aloud co-editing process. Facilitators were required to talk about their experiences with each other and revise the talk-aloud protocol.

Wall, H. (2008). Interactive writing beyond the primary grades. The Reading Teacher, 62(2), 149-152.

The third graders classroom study conducted in Georgia, U.S. embraces the interactive writing approach in collaboration with grammar component and structural phonetics. Students spent 25 minutes weekly to write on the large whiteboard provided. Results indicated students experiment more advanced writing concepts with the support of their peers. Findings encouraged other institutions to develop similar programme in order to create a truly interaction learning communications.

Yuan, S.C., & Shao, W.S. (2011). A genre-based approach to teaching EFL summary writing. ELT Journal Advance Access. 1-9.

The study investigates the instructional efficacy of a genre-based approach to teaching summary writing of 41 EFL university students. There were pre-test as in reading and watching videos and post-test which was summary of the story and responding to questions asked. The overall course of study took 14 hours. The study reported that there was improvement in the students’ content and organization of written texts.

6. Cassandra Jothi Krishnan - October 14, 2011

Dear Dr Rubrico, this is my assignment.

Cassandra Jothi Krishnan
PGP110022

Research Topic: Enhancing vocabulary development and reading comprehension through reading strategies among low proficiency diploma students.

Annotated Bibliography 1

Lu, F.L. (2008. The study of English learners’ synthesizing process while reading. Asian EFL Journal, 10 (1). Retrieved 9 October 2011 from
http://www.asian-efl-journal.com/March_08_lfl.php

This article is a descriptive study of grade 10-12 students from a senior high school in Taipan, Taiwan on the synthesizing process while reading. The method use to collect data is the “Retelling Assessment Technique” and the finding is the ability of learners to retell synthesizing info over reading passage with the assistance of their prior knowledge.

Annotated Bibliography 2

Yang, A. (2007). Cultivating a reading habit: Silent reading at school. Asian EFL Journal, 9(2). Retrieved 9 October 2011 from
http://www.asian-efl-journal.com/June_07_ay.php

This article is a study on the effectiveness of a new whole school approach reading subject; cultivating a reading habit through silent reading in a Chinese secondary school in Hong Kong by interviewing and giving questionnaires to teachers and students for data collection. The finding proves that students develop reading habit when reading during school time.

Annotated Bibliography 3
Mehrpour, S. (2008). A comparison of the effects of two vocabulary teaching techniques. Asian EFL Journal, 10(2). Retrieved 9 October 2011, from
http://www.asian-efl-journal.com/June_08_sm.php

This article is a study conducted among 50 students of Iran Language Institute between the ages of 15-30 on the comparison of the effects of vocabulary teaching techniques; contextualizing and decontextualizing using the descriptive statistics and T-Test on two different groups; control and experimental groups. The finding showed that decontextualizing technique is better than contextualizing technique for students of low proficiency level.

Annotated Bibliography 4

Akbari, Z. & Tahririan, M.H. (2009). Vocabulary learning strategies in an ESP context: The case of Para/medical English in Iran. Asian EFL Journal, 11(1). Retrieved 9 October 2011from
http://www.asian-efl-journal.com/March_09_za.php

This qualitative study focusing on the vocabulary learning strategies in an ESP context conducted among 137 para/medical undergraduates in Isfahan University of Medical Sciences where questionnaires, observations and interviews to collect data and the findings are teachers should be aware of students needs in learning to facilitate in the development and utilizing of students vocabulary.

Annotated Bibliography 5

Wang, Y. & Sachs, G.T. (2011), Comprehensible input through extensive reading: Problems in English language teaching in China. Asian EFL Journal, 53. Retrieved 13 October 2011 from
http://www.asian-efl-journal.com/PTA/Volume_53_ym.pdf

This research investigated the issues of English language input where extensive reading is introduced to elementary and junior learners at three different schools: private, public elementary and junior sector at a public secondary school in China. The methods used are interviewing English teachers and examining textbooks and the findings are; students receive minimal language input and are not sufficiently exposed to English language.

Annotated Bibliography 6

Gorsuch, G. & Taguchi, E. (2010). Developing reading fluency and comprehension using repeated readings: Evidence from longitudinal students’ reports. Language Teaching Research, 14(1) 27-59. Retrieved 5 October 2011 from
http://ltr.sagepub.com

This article is a study on developing reading fluency and comprehension using repeated reading among 30 intermediate college students in Vietnam using qualitative quasi-experimental study and the finding proves that repeated reading had positive effects on the students’ reading fluency and comprehension as they become better at processing the text.

Annotated bibliography 7

Tercanlioglu, L. (2004). Postgraduate students’ use of reading strategies in L1 and ESL context: Link to success. International Education Journal, 5(4). Retrieved 6 October 2011 from
http://iej.cjb.net

This article is a study of 11 postgraduate non-native English speakers and 6 postgraduate native English speakers in a University in the United Kingdom on the use of reading strategies in L1 and ESL contexts. The methods used are interview, questionnaires and Adult Survey of Reading and the findings showed both groups preferences for reading strategies in their reading efficacy.

Annotated Bibliography 8

Janzen, J. (2007). Preparing teachers of second language reading. Tesol Quarterly, 41(4) 707-729. Retrieved 5 October 2011 from
http://www.jstor.org/stable/40264403

This article is a study on preparing teachers of second language reading among 6 ELL’s teachers in a small urban school district in USA. The methods used in this study are interview and classroom observation and the finding indicates that teachers should address to 13 aspects of teaching reading; practice, goals and context.

Annotated Bibliography 9

Fatimah Hashim & Goh, H.C. (2006). Use of L1 in L2 reading comprehension among tertiary ESL learners. Reading in a Foreign Language, 18(1). Retrieved 5 October 2011 from
http://nflrc.hawaii.edu/rfl/april2006/goh/goh.html

This article is the study of four undergraduates from Universiti Pendidikan Sultan Idris in Perak on the extent of L1 use among L2 readers while reading L2 texts in a group. The methods used are thinking aloud protocols as the methodology as group discussions were taped. The finding shows that L1 was frequently used when they encountered difficulty in comprehending L2 text. Therefore, think aloud in L1 in a group is encouraged as it helps to improve students’ L2 speaking and skills.

Annotated bibliography 10

Weil, N. (2008). Vocabulary size, background characteristics and reading skills of Korean Intensive English students. Asian EFL Journal, 10 (4). Retrieved 9 October 2011 from
http://www.asian-efl-journal.com/December_08_nw.php

This article examines the relationship between the size of vocabulary, background experience in learning English and student’s skill in the reading of academic text on11 Korean students of the Intensive English Program and 5 Korean undergraduate students at Utah State University where Swansea Level Tests are used to test their vocabulary size along with questionnaires. This study concludes that a better reader promotes syntactic knowledge to engage on the text but less on compensatory strategies.

Annotated Bibliography 11

Iwai, Y. (2010). Re-envisioning reading comprehension for English language learners. The Internet Tesl Journal. Retrieved 6 October 2011 from
http://iteslj.org/Articles/Iwai-Reading.html

This article studies the challenges English language learners face in developing their English reading comprehension skills. The researcher claimed that little knowledge of vocabulary, culturally different schemata and use of the first language are the problems faced by these learners. Iwai suggested that teachers should understand and respect learners’ individual differences as well as encouraging bi-literacy and using explicit instruction in meaningful context as it help learners in reading L2.

Annotated Bibliography 12

Kawabata, T. (2007). Teaching second language reading strategies. The Internet Tesl Journal. Retrieved 6 October 2011 from
http://iteslj.org/Techniques/Kawabata-ReadingStrategies.html

Kawabata’s article offers selections of activities that can be useful in EFL classes to teach reading to students. Taking into consideration of the real objective which is to help students in learning effective reading strategies to develop their reading comprehension, the reading process is categorised into 3 parts: Pre-reading activities, during reading activities and post-reading activities. Most of the activities suggested would help to generate the development of students’ comprehension knowledge.

Annotated Bibliography 13

Yun, J & Cervantes, M. (2006). Defining words: What can teachers and students do?”. The Internet Tesl Journal. Retrieved 6 October 2011 from
http://iteslj.org/Technique/Yun-DefiningWords.html

This article is a research on how students and teachers define difficult vocabulary effectively. The methods are survey on the usage of dictionary for intermediate and advance learners in an academic university, interviewing teachers and observing classes focusing on vocabulary and word learning strategies. Therefore, it is a teacher’s responsibility to ensure that learners can produce words and know how to use it appropriately, with the right meaning and grammatically correct rather than recognizing the word alone.

Annotated Bibliography 14

Singhal, M. (1998) A Comparison of L1 and L2 Reading: Cultural Differences and Schema. The Internet Tesl Journal. Retrieved 6 October 2011 from
http://iteslj.org/Articles/Singhal-ReadingL1L2.html

Singhal offers an in-depth understanding of the important basic elements with reading in a second or foreign. She explains how reading in L1 can be different from and similar to reading in L2 in the contexts of schemata, textual and linguistic. The problems faced by readers, whom English or other foreign language were an L2 if they were given those texts compare to readers whom English or other foreign language were the L1. Singhal has discussed that background knowledge serves as an important role in understanding reading text.

7. Anita a/p V. Sivanesan ( PGP110010) - October 14, 2011

PBGX6113 Research in SLA
Course requirement 1 – Part 1 ( Annotated Bibliography)

The level of competency in listening skills among ESL learners

Boston, J. S. (2008). Learner mining of pre-task and task input. ELT Journal, 62(1), 66-76.

The study investigates the use of language items found in pre-task and task materials during task performance by L2 learners. The participants were of low level vocational college students in Japan. The methodology used was listening to audio recordings before and after task. The findings reported that low level learners do not ‘mine’ whole structures from pre-task audio input as they do in written task.

Chang, A.C-S., & Read, J. (2006). The effects of listening support on the listening performance of EFL learners. TESOL Quarterly, 40(2), 375-397.

This study investigates the effect of 4 types of listening support: previewing the test questions, repetition of the input, providing background knowledge of the topic and vocabulary instruction. The research involved 160 business majors enrolled in a required English listening course at a college in Taipei, Taiwan. The participants took a listening test based on the 4 types of listening support. Topic preparation (TP) and repetition of the input (RI) were found to be the most effective type of listening support.

Chen, A. (2009). Listening strategy instruction: Exploring Taiwanese college students’ strategy development. Asian EFL Journal Quarterly, 11(2), 8-30. Retrieved 11 October 2011, from http://www.asian-efl-journal.com/June_2009_EBook.pdf

The study reports on the implementation of strategy instruction (SI) in the regular EFL listening curriculum in the context of a Taiwanese technological college. The study focuses on exploring learners’ listening strategy development over a course of SI. The participants were 31 non-English major students of different listening proficiency enrolled in an EFL listening course for 14 weeks. Reflective journals were employed to provide quantitative and qualitative insights onto how students develop their strategy use over time. Results showed that students reported greater awareness and control of their listening strategies. Integrating SI in the EFL classroom can lead to positive effects for learners’ understanding and in the use of listening strategies

Cross, J. (2009). Diagnosing the process, text and intrusion problems responsible for L2 listeners’ decoding errors. Asian EFL Journal Quarterly, 11(2), 8-30. Retrieved 11 October 2011, from
http://www.asian-efl-journal.com/June_2009_EBook.pdf

This paper reports on a study of L2 listeners’ decoding problems to comprehend authentic input. The study diagnoses the process, text and intrusion problems responsible for learners decoding errors. 73 adult, Japanese males and females aged between 22 and 65, attending advanced-level EFL courses in central Japan, took part in the study. They watched a sequence of audio-visual segments from each of two news videotexts and wrote extended responses reflecting their comprehension of it. The findings reveal that some form of comprehension breakdown such as, full omission of the clause, inclusion of solitary lexical items, omission of one or more content related details, occur during the listening process.

Deterding, D. (2005). Listening to Estuary English in Singapore. TESOL Quarterly, 3(3), 425-439.

The article discusses problems in comprehending Estuary English speech by ESL learners. 12 Singaporean undergraduates were asked to listen to a short extract of about 40 seconds from one of the Estuary English recordings, transcribe what they heard and comment on the feature of the speech. They faced phonological problems in the areas of th-fronting, t-glottalling and the dark /l/; dental fricatives enhance comprehension; pronunciation of the dark /l/ poses little threat to intelligibility. Exposure to a wide range of accents prepare learners for communication with people around the world.

Florea, P.J. ( 2011). Using improvisation exercise for increasing speaking and listening skills. Asian EFL Journal, 52, 46-58. Retrieved 09 October 2011, from http://www.asian-efl-journal.com/PTA/May_2011_Florea.pdf

The article explores the philosophy of improvisational exercise as well as ways to foster spontaneous speech and increase listening skills for L2 learners in Korea. Improvisational exercises provide three main goals whereby, students’ pronunciation improves, proper grammatical structure is reinforced and vocabulary practice is enhanced; presentation, practise, production pattern of language instruction is used. Improvisational techniques allow students to utilize grammatical structures of the target language more naturally, thus decreasing their reliance on their native language

Gilakjani, A.P., & Ahmadi, S.M. (2011). The impact of authentic listening materials on Iranian EFL learners’ English listening comprehension. Iranian EFL Journal, 7(3), 157-165. Retrieved 11 October 2011, from http://iranian-efl-journal.com/June-2011-Vol7-3.pdf

The study investigates the impact of using authentic listening materials on Iranian EFL learners’ English listening comprehension, the difficulties and the strategies used. The participants were 50 students, 35 female and 15 male between the ages of 20 – 24, majoring in English Translation at Lahijan University, Iran. They were required to do a weekly listening assignment using their choice of authentic materials. The findings revealed that the materials helped students enhance their English listening comprehension, particularly English listening strategies, vocabulary and pronunciation.

Kucuk, F., & Walters, J.D. ( 2009). How good is your test? ELT Journal, 63(4), 332-341.

This study addresses the question of how well face validity reflects more objective measures of the quality of a test, such as predictive validity and reliability. The subjects were 52 students studying at the Zonguldak Karaelmas University, English Language Compulsory Preparatory School in Zonguldak, Turkey. Two questionnaires on participants’ perception of the face validity of achievement test, scorer reliability and test takers’ performance were employed in this study. Face validity and predictive validity of these achievement tests accurately reflects the aspects of reliability measured in this study.

Kuo, Y. (2010). Using partial dictation of an English Teaching Radio Program to enhance EFL learners’ listening comprehension. Asian EFL Journal, 47, 4-23. Retrieved 10 October 2011, from
http://www.asian-efl-journal.com/pta_October_2010_yk.php

This study investigates the effectiveness of using partial dictation of an English teaching radio program to enhance EFL learners’ listening comprehension. This paper reports pervasive decoding problems of word recognition and word segmentation in connected speech at normal speed among EFL students. The participants were 31 engineering students in an intermediate-level Freshman English class. A valid and reliable listening test served as pre and post-test and two short teacher-made questionnaires were adopted to collect the necessary data. Significant results of a paired-samples t-test suggest that partial dictation of an English teaching radio program can effectively improve students’ comprehension.

Mahdavy, B. (2008). The role of multiple intelligence (MI) in listening proficiency: A comparison of TOEFL and IELTS listening texts from an MI perspective. Asian EFL Journal, 10(3), 1-13. Retrieved 09 October 2011, from http://www.asian-efl-journal.com/September_08_bm.php

The study investigates the role of multiple intelligence in listening proficiency, whereby the cognitive demands of the two tests were compared. 151 Iranian male and female students majoring in English Language were given an actual TOEFL and IELTS listening tests and also a Multiple Intelligence Development Assessment Scales (MIDAS) questionnaire. The results suggest that linguistic intelligence has a statistically significant correlation with listening proficiency as measured by TOEFL and IELTS.

Mordaunt, O.G., & Olson, D.W. (2010). Listen, listen, listen: building a comprehension corpus and making it comprehensible. Educational studies, 36 (3), 249-258.

This paper focuses on using listening to build language ability. In order for language learners to acquire language, they need to spend a large portion of their language learning time listening to the target language and comprehend what they listen. A large input is required for linguistic competency. The focus should be on increasing learners’ ability to understand native speakers in the real world context. Learners need to build a comprehension corpus; use repeat techniques and spoken text segment by segment to make listening comprehensible.

Noon, S. (2011). Teaching listening speaking skills to Thai students with low English proficiency. Asian EFL Journal, 10(4), 1-14. Retrieved 08 October 2011, from http://www.asian-efl-journal.com/December_08_sna.php

This study explores the result of an intervention designed to improve the listening-speaking skills of students with low English proficiency. 28 low English proficiency students were randomly selected among the first year students at Thammasat University, Thailand. Pre-post test, questionnaires, classroom observation, students’ self reflection and course evaluation were employed in this study. The findings showed that students’ readiness and interest in learning English significantly increased; they showed good rapport in interaction with their teachers and were satisfied with the course as a whole.

Vandergrift, L., & Tafaghodtari, M.H. (2010). Teaching L2 learners how to listen does make a difference: An Empirical Study. Language Learning, 60(2), 470-497.

This study investigates the effects of metacognitive approach to teaching listening skills to undergraduates of French as a second language (FSL) over a semester. Listeners used multiple strategies to interpret oral text. Listening tasks through prediction, monitoring, evaluation, and problem solving help develop the metacognitive knowledge critical to the development of self-regulated listening. Metacognitive instructions provide learners to acquire knowledge of L2 listening through task performance and understand authentic text inside and outside the classroom.

Vidal, K. (2011). A comparison of the effects of reading and listening on Incidental Vocabulary Acquisition. Language Learning, 61(1), 219-258.

The article compares the effects of listening and reading on the incidental acquisition and retention of vocabulary. The subjects were 248 first-year undergraduates who were studying in the English medium as part of a regular ESP course at the Universidad Autonoma de Madrid. Three video taped lectures and three corresponding reading materials were developed from the same spoken and written authentic sources and therefore had the same content and target words. The findings indicate that although academic reading and listening result in vocabulary gains, reading is a more efficient source of acquisition and a greater retention of input.

Wagner, E. (2010). The effects of the use of video texts on ESL listening test-taker performance. Language Testing, 27(4), 493-513.

This study investigates the effects of non verbal information in the video listening text on ESL learners’ listening test performance. The participants were students in the Community English Programme (CEP) at an American university. A quasi-experimental design was used to compare the performance of two groups of learners on an ESL listening test; the control group with audio-only texts while the experimental group took the same test in addition to input through the use of video. The use of video texts led to increased group test performance of L2 learners’ listening ability due to the non- verbal information (kinesic behaviour) in it.

8. Pakialetchumy a/p Antoni - October 14, 2011

Dear Dr Jessie,
This is my annotated bibliography.

Pakialetchumy a/p Antoni
PGP110016

Chang, S. C. (2011). A contrastive study of grammar translation method and communicative approach in teaching English grammar. English Language Teaching, 4(2). Retrieved 1 October 2011,from
http://ezproxy.um.edu.my:2110/pqdweb?did=2396966251&sid=5&Fmt=3&clientId=18803&RQT=309&VName=PQD

This research paper aims to compare the controllability and feasibility of Grammar Translation Method and the Communicative Approach and to find out which one is more suitable for grammar teaching in Taiwan. The finding of this research clearly shows that the Grammar Translation Method is a suitable approach for teaching grammar to college students as the students became more interested in grammar lessons.

Datta, H. (2010). Brain bases for first language lexical attrition in Bengali-English speakers. Retrieved 2 October 2011, from
http://ezproxy.um.edu.my:2110/pqdweb?did=2075981191&sid=9&Fmt=2&clientId=18803&RQT=309&VName=PQD

This study was conducted on a group of 27 Bengali-English speakers who acquired their second language by 12 years of age to understand the relative contributions of L1 strength and L2 interference towards L1 attrition in L2 dominant bilingual individuals. It was found out that L2 interference into L1 plays a larger role in L1 attrition in L2 dominant individuals.

Fitzpatrick, T., & Izura, C. (2011). An exploratory study of response types, response times, and interlingual mediation. Studies in Second Language Acquisition, 33. Retrieved 1 October 2011, from http://ezproxy.um.edu.my:2726/action/displayJournal?jid=SLA

This journal reviews an exploratory study conducted on 25 native Spanish speakers who had started to learn English as a L2 at an average age of 9 years old in United Kingdom to investigate the type of word associations bilingual speakers elicit in their L1 and L2 and the speed at which these associations are produced. The finding showed that associations with more than one type of activation route were produced in L1 and L2.

Gruszczynska-Harrison, M. (2010). Language transfer and beyond: Pro-drop, code switching, and acquisition milestones in bilingual Polish-English children. Retrieved 2 October 2011, from
http://ezproxy.um.edu.my:2110/pqdweb?did=2243629521&sid=2&Fmt=2&clientId=18803&RQT=309&VName=PQD

This study was carried out on 10 bilingual children who are Polish-English bilinguals, to determine whether simultaneous bilingualism affects the use of the said feature in children’s language and whether there is a possibility of its transfer from Polish (pro-drop) to English (non-pro-drop) and vice versa. The data for this study was derived by means of three language tasks: a spontaneous conversation, a preplanned psycholinguistic task of story elicitation, and an elicitation of autobiographical narratives. The result shows that the feature is different in each of the languages and the inaccuracy in its application or omission in the respective languages is a result of cross linguistic influence-language transfer. It is also stated that the language transfer is bidirectional.

Hardman, J. B. (2010). The intelligibility of Chinese-accented English to international and American students at a U.S. university. Retrieved 13 October from 2011,
http://ezproxy.um.edu.my:2110/pqdweb?did=2163997601&sid=3&Fmt=2&clientId=18803&RQT=309&VName=PQD

This study was carried out to determine the intelligibility of Chinese graduate students to their Indian, Chinese, Korean, and American peers, especially to determine the teaching priorities for English for Academic Purposes in the US, where listeners have a wide variety of native languages. The participants included 6 male graduate students (Chinese & American) as speakers and 72 graduate students (Indian, Chinese, Korean, & American) as listeners. The findings suggested that intelligibility improved as listener word familiarity increased and was also affected differently according to the listener’s L1.

Hong, W. M. (2008). Lexical aspect and L1 influence on the acquisition of English verb tense and aspect among the Hong Kong secondary school learners. Retrieved 10 October 2011, from
http://ezproxy.um.edu.my:2110/pqdweb?did=1656127721&sid=3&Fmt=2&clientId=18803&RQT=309&VName=PQD

This thesis investigates the role of lexical semantics and L1 influence on the acquisition of simple past tense. The respondents of the study were secondary school learners from levels 1 to 5 of a Chinese-medium middle school. 3 tasks such as fill in the blanks, translation and a picture narrative were used to elicit data from the learners. The results of this study indicate that both lexical aspect and L1 influence affect Hong Kong secondary school learners of English when acquiring English simple past tenses.

Mathis-Wisseh, R. D. (2011). An interactive classroom-based action research of the influences of students’ language background on their ability to learn standard written English. A Case Study of the Process of Learning Standard Written English. Retrieved 1 October 2011, from
http://ezproxy.um.edu.my:2110/pqdweb?did=2472673361&sid=9&Fmt=2&clientId=18803&RQT=309&VName=PQD

This case study was conducted on 20 L1 and L2 students to examine the process by which first language (native speakers of English) and second language (non-native speakers of English) students develop the ability to acquire the standard written form of the English language. This study finds out that the participants have engaged in English language learning activities that involve reading reflection, Socratic seminar, and heuristic writing and proofreading.

Monteleone, M. A.(2009). Effects of first language voicing rules on the perception and production of English obstruent sequences by adult Hungarian and Polish learners of English. Retrieved 2 October 2011, from http://ezproxy.um.edu.my:2110/pqdweb?did=1901678381&sid=3&Fmt=2&clientId=18803&RQT=309&VName=PQD

The participants of this study were 12 native Polish speakers, 11 native Hungarian speakers and 8 native American English speakers. This study was set to examine the difficulties in the acquisition of L2 phonology specifically at the role of native L1 voicing rules on L2 perception and production. The pattern of results observed in this study suggests that both L1 phonetic and phonological interference affects perception and production in L2.

Najmi, Abdulaziz H. (2009). Clause structure in the development of child L2 English of L1 Arabic. Retrieved 2 October 2011, from
http://ezproxy.um.edu.my:2110/pqdweb?did=2069026311&sid=9&Fmt=2&clientId=18803&RQT=309&VName=PQD

This study was conducted to examine the first and following emerging grammars of child, Mayyas who is native speaker of Arabic and a learner of English. The further objective is to investigate the status of child L2 acquisition with regard to child LI and adult L2 acquisition. This idea is to test whether child L2 resembles child LI /adult L2 in the domain of syntax and morphology. Another objective is to determine the extent to which LI intervenes with the L2 acquisition, and to find out the nature of the intervention. The findings provide empirical evidence suggesting that child L2 learners not only recognize functional features, but are also able to integrate them into their language system from early on.

Nikolova S. A. (2010). L1 interference in the perception and production of English vowels by arabic speakers. Retrieved 2 October 2011, from
http://ezproxy.um.edu.my:2110/pqdweb?did=2414555211&sid=7&Fmt=2&clientId=18803&RQT=309&VName=PQD

This study was conducted on 20 beginners and 21 advanced ESL students with Arabic L1 to test their perception and their production. This study supplies the evidence that despite the students’ advancement in level, they still produce errors in pronunciation as the acquisition of vowels depends greatly on L1 and this study found evidence for the existence of nonnative contrasts, but they are also influenced by difficulties in L2.

Schwieter, J. W. (2007). A psycholinguistic investigation of language selectivity in bilingual speech production. Retrieved 10 October 2011, from
http://ezproxy.um.edu.my:2110/pqdweb?did=1656127721&sid=3&Fmt=2&clientId=18803&RQT=309&VName=PQD

This dissertation investigates the locus of language selection during bilingual speech production particularly whether distinct language backgrounds, proficiency and age of acquisition determine language selectivity and how competition is resolved between languages in the bilingual mind. The participants ranged in age from 18-53 and were students or instructors of Spanish or faculty members at the Florida State University.The finding claims that low proficiency bilinguals support theoretical claims of the Inhibitory Control Model while the data for the highly proficient bilinguals support a more language-selective mechanism involved in lexical
processing and language production.

Yu, C. H. (2011). Dominant language influence in acquisition and attrition of the Chinese reflexive ziji by Chinese-English bilinguals. Retrieved 10 October 2011, from
http://ezproxy.um.edu.my:2110/pqdweb?did=2431629681&sid=3&Fmt=2&clientId=18803&RQT=309&VName=PQD

This study is set to investigate how English, as the dominant language of Chinese heritage speakers, influences their minor language, Chinese, in the binding domain of the Chinese reflexive ziji. The participants came from five different experimental groups namely the heritage learners, early bilinguals, late bilinguals, Chinese L2 learners and Chinese monolinguals. The Truth Value Judgment Task with stories (Crain and Thornton, 1998) is used to examine the structural differences in the binding domain between Chinese and English in this experiment. The study shows that early bilinguals and late bilinguals will not show L1 attrition.

9. drjessie - October 14, 2011

NAME : SAFIATUN BT BAHAROM (PGP 110009)

STRATEGIES USED IN TEACHING POETRY TO ESL STUDENTS

Ab. Rashid, R., Edwin Vethamani, M., & Basree Abdul Rahman, S. (2010, December). Approaches employed by teachers in teaching literature to less proficient students in Form 1 and Form 2. English Language Teaching, 3(4), 87-99.

This research is to study the approaches used by teachers in teaching literature to less proficient students of form one in Kelantan. This study uses the quantitative and qualitative methodologies in its research design. The findings of the study discover that information based approach and moral philosophical are the most favourable approaches. Students also have a positive feedback on the approaches employed by the teacher.

Chen, Y.M. (2006). Using children’s literature for reading and writing stories. Asian EFL Journal, 8(4), 210-232.
The purpose of the study is to investigate the effectiveness of using children’s literature in developing EFL students’ narrative and writings skills in composing their own stories. First year students in a university in Taiwan have to undergo a special project for four weeks. Students’ opinions were gathered based from interviews done and reflective statements. The findings confirm that majority of the students love stories because of the simplicity of the language, the content, the length and have their confidence as creative writers.

G Fogal, G. (2010). EFL literature studies: Student feedback on teaching methodology. Asian EFL Journal, 12(4), 1-15.

This study is to find out the feedbacks of Japanese university students in Japan on the three teaching methodologies which incorporate authentic literature in classroom. Qualitative data that is from questionnaires and one to one interviews were gathered to calculate the findings. Results showed that students would like teacher to assist them so that they are confident and be actively involved in the learning process.

Ghazali, S. N., Setia, R., Muthusamy, C., & Jusoff, K. (2009). ESL students’ attitude towards texts and teaching methods used in literature classes. Journals Articles of 2009- UiTM. Retrieved from http://www2.tganu.uitm.edu.my/upena/dokumen/ELTNorlianaKJ1revd.doc

This paper aims to investigate students’ attitudes towards the texts used in the literature class, the challenges faced in reading these texts, the type of texts students prefer to read. It looks into the teaching strategies used and their effectiveness to a group of form five students on Terengganu. From the questionnaires and interviews confirms that students prefer short stories, variety of activities and they favour group discussion.

Ismail, F., Abdul Aziz, M., & Abdullah, T. (2008). Literature in English language teaching: A revisit in the Malaysian context. In Research in language teaching. (Reprinted from Research in English Language Teaching, 2008, pp. 62-76). Retrieved from http://teknologimalaysia.academia.edu

The purpose of the study is to find out how English teachers and secondary students in Johor Bahru are adapting to the literature component after its introduction. From the questionnaires, showed the students and teachers are apprehensive in using classics texts, students having positive perception over interactive activities including the usage of multimedia and the usage of revision books.

Kaur Sidhu, G., Yuen Fook, C., & Kaur, S. (2010, June). Instructional practices in teaching literature: Observation of ESL classroom in Malaysia. English Language Teaching, 3(2), 54-63.

This is a study done to investigate the instructional practices carried out in the Contemporary Children’s Literature (CCL) programme for the primary ESL students. The samples are 5 primary teachers teaching Year 4 in Selangor. Classroom observation and interviews are adopted as research instruments. The findings showed that, teachers focussed on reading activities (reading aloud), language –based activities (grammar and vocabulary exercise) and comprehension activities.

Khatib, M. (2011, January). A new approach to teaching English poetry to EFL students. Journal of Language Teaching and Research, 2(1), 164-169.

This research is carried out to study the effectiveness of a new approach in teaching poetry in EFL situations to a group of university students in Iran. The controlled group is taught using the traditional method and the experimental group is given the ‘treatment’. The activities for the experimental group are varied. From the surveys, tests showed that there is a change of attitude towards poetry and the experimental group performed better in the test.

Lu, D. (2008). Revisiting the use of literary text in L2 learning. Applied Language Studies, 12, 68-87.

This article is a report about a study to examine the proficiency of students in understanding literary text. The samples are year one university students having intermediate to high proficiency in English in Hong Kong. A questionnaire is employed as the research instrument to collect the data. The findings showed that subjects felt uncertain in doing the reading comprehension tasks given to them. However, they felt that reading the literary text enlighten their weakness in the language.

Magos, K. (2008). The creative second language lesson: The contribution of role-play technique to the teaching of a second language in immigrant classes. RELC, 39(1), 96-112.

This study aims to find out the effectiveness of role play in teaching a class of immigrants (English adults) to speak Greek. From the interviews and observation, the findings of the study showed that role play is a successful tool in teaching L2 but the effectiveness of the activity will depend on the teachers. Active participation will take place when the learners understand the content and when it is linked to their interests and needs to use the language in the real situation.

Muthusamy, C., Marimuthu, R., Subrayan @Michael, A., Ghazali, S. N., & Veeeragu, J. (2010, January). Literature learning in the Malaysian ESL classroom: A UiTM experience. Journal of Language Teaching and Research, 1(1), 69-76

This research is a study to find out the benefits of using literature in teaching L2. A quasi- experimental design is conducted for two groups (control and experimental) of students in Uitm, Terengganu. Results confirmed that the experimental group who were taught special intervention programme comprehend the literature text and performed better in the test administered.

Tseng, F.P. (2010, January). Introducing literature to an EFL classroom: Teacher’s presentations and students’ perceptions. Journal of Language Teaching and Research, 1(1), 53-65.

This study aims to find out the effect of teacher’s presentation of literary works on a group of senior high school Taiwanese students in northern Taiwan. This is a qualitative study where two sets of questionnaires are administered to the students. Results showed that students enjoyed teachers’ presentation, preferred prose to poems and like to read contemporary literature rather than classic.

Yeh, A. (2005, January). Poetry from the heart. English Today, 21(1), 45-51.

This study aimed to find out the effectiveness of using poetry as a topic of discussion in a listening and speaking class of university students in Taiwan. From the questionnaires distributed a task based activity using poetry has initiated students’ understanding of the poem and boost their confidence in using English.

10. Wan Mohd Noraiman - October 14, 2011

NAME : WAN MOHD NOR AIMAN B W ABU BAKAR
MATRIC NO. : PGP110005
ASSIGNMENT DUE:14TH OCT. 2011 (Week 5)

Phonological Awareness and its effect on reading ability

C. A., & Bowey, J. A. (2005). The Efficacy of Orthographic Rime, Grapheme–Phoneme Correspondence, and Implicit Phonics Approaches to Teaching Decoding Skills. Scientific Studies of Reading, 9( 4),327-349

This study compared the efficacy of two decoding skill-based programs, one based on explicit orthographic rime and one on grapheme-phoneme correspondences, to a control group exposed to an implicit phonic program. The study was done in Brisbane, Australia involving 116 children in Grade 2 (second year of schooling) with average age of 7 years old. The participants were measured through 3 tests which were Pretest, Interim Test and Post Test and also intervention program. The researcher had concluded that incorporation of systematic decoding instruction with extended practice in decoding word is an important component of any reading instruction program. Explicit decoding instruction and the accompanying practice appears to more rapidly consolidate decoding skills and symbol–sound knowledge to the point where this knowledge can be used to decode unfamiliar words. Both explicit decoding instruction groups read more transfer words at post test than the implicit phonics group and both did better in the reading of meaningful text.

Cho, J.R., Chiu, M.M., & Chang, M.C. (2010) Morphological Awareness, Phonological Awareness, and Literacy Development in Korean and English: A 2-Year Longitudinal Study. Scientific Studies of Reading, 15(5), 383-408

This study is a research on morphological awareness, phonological awareness and literacy development in Korean and also English. It was a 2-Year longitudinal study carried out in Korea involving 81 Korean children. These children were tested once a year across Grades 4, 5 and 6 on Korean phonological and morphological awareness, speeded-naming, Hangul word recognition, Hangul spelling, and English word reading. The results of the study supported the idea of phonological transfer to reading in a second language and underscore the importance of morphological compounding awareness for early literacy development in Korean.

Georgiou, G. K., Parrila, R., Kirby, J. R., & Stephenson, K. (2008). Rapid Naming Components and Their Relationship with Phonological Awareness, Orthographic Knowledge, Speed of Processing, and Different Reading Outcomes. Scientific Studies of Reading, 12(4), 325-350

This article is on a study that examines how rapid automatized naming (RAN) predicting reading accuracy and fluency and how Ran components are related to measures of phonological awareness, orthographic knowledge and speed of processing. 48 children were administered RAN tasks in Grades 1, 2 and 3. From the study, result showed that pause time was highly correlated with both reading accuracy and reading fluency measure sand shared more of its predictive variance with orthographic knowledge than with phonological awareness or speed of processing. In contrast, articulation time was only weakly correlated with the reading measures and was rather independent from any processing skill at any point of measurement.

Henning, C., McIntosh, B., Arnott, W., & Dodd, B. (2009). Long-term outcome of oral language and phonological awareness intervention with socially disadvantaged preschoolers: the impact on language and literacy. Journal of Research in Reading, 33(3), 231-246

This study was carried out to examine whether the short-term positive effect of a pre-school classroom based oral language and phonological awareness (PA) was maintained and transferred to literacy 2 years later. The study was carried out in Australia in low socioeconomic area measuring the vocabulary knowledge, grammatical skill, auditory comprehension and reading comprehension of 54 (6-7 years old) school children. The result of the study conveyed that intervention in preschool generating short-term positive effects but did not enhance socially disadvantaged children’s language and literacy achievement in the long term.

Hulme, C., Snowling, M., Caravolas, & M., Carroll, J. (2005). Phonological Skills Are (Probably) One Cause of Success in Learning to Read: A Comment on Castles and Coltheart Scientific Studies of Reading, 9(4), 351-365

This article is mainly about the authors review/comment on Castles and Coltheart on their review into the topic of Phonological Skills Are (probably) One Cause of Success in Learning to Read. According to Castles and Coltheart (2004) the casual link between children’s underlying phonological awareness and success in learning to read remains unproven. This view was argued by the authors. They came out with balance of evidence that favor such a causal link. The authors in conclusion strongly agree that training phoneme awareness in the context of literacy instruction is beneficial to young children with reading difficulties.

Kuppen, S., Huss, M., Fosker, T., Fegan, N., & Usha Goshwani.(2011). Basic Auditory Processing Skills and Phonological Awareness in Low-IQ Readers and Typically Developing Controls. Scientific Studies of Reading, 15(3), 211-243

This journal is about a research on the relationships between basic auditory processing, phonological awareness, vocabulary, and word reading. This research involved 95 children, 55 typically developing children 40 children with low IQ. During the period of the study, all the children were given nonspeech auditory processing tasks, phonological processing and literacy measures, and a receptive vocabulary task. The result showed that the children with low IQ and low reading skills were significantly impaired in auditory and phonological processing whereas the children with low IQ and preserved reading skills were not affected.

Kim, Y.S.(2008). Cat in the hat or cat in the cap? An investigation of the developmental trajectories of phonological awareness for Korean children. Journal of Research in Reading, 31(4), 359-378

This journal is about a study on the developmental trajectories of phonological awareness for Korean children. The study investigated trajectories of Korean children’s growth in the awareness of four phonological units which were syllable, body, rime and phoneme. Sums of 215 Korean children whom already started their first year of preschool for almost 15 month were taken as the subject of the study. During the period of the study, four waves of data were collected measured with some pilot test created by the researcher. From the study it found out that Korean children had a higher awareness of the body unit than the rhyme unit supporting the evidence that Korean children find body-coda more accessible than onset-rime.

Lepola, J., Poskiparta, E., Laakkonen, E.,& Niemi, P.(2005). Development of and Relationship Between Phonological and Motivational Processes and Naming Speed in Predicting
Word Recognition in Grade 1. Scientific Studies of Reading, 9(4), 367-399

This article is about the study on the developmental of and relationships among letter knowledge, phonological awareness, and rapid naming in word recognition in Grade 1. The aim of this study was to analyze the developmental dynamic of linguistic and motivational factors in predicting word reading skill in Grade 1. The study was carried out in Finland involving 178 children whom could not read words when assessed 6 months before the start of Grade 1. This research is a Longitudinal Design where the participants’ cognitive –linguistic skills, word reading skill, and motivation were assessed at three time points: kindergarten, preschool and Grade 1. From the study, it was concluded that rapid naming, phonological awareness, letter knowledge, and teacher-rated task orientation were found to be important components of beginning reading.

Ranjita Mishra., & Rhona Stainthorp. (2007). The relationship between phonological awareness and Word reading accuracy in Oriya and English: A study of Oriya-speaking fifth-graders. Journal of Research in Reading, 30(1), 23-37

This article is about a study to investigate the relationships between phonological awareness and reading in Oriya (official language off Orissa) and English. The study was carried out in Oriya (an eaten state of India). It involved 99 fifth grade children with the mean of age of 9 years and 7 months old. They were assessed on measure of phonological awareness, word reading and pseudo-word reading in both languages. The result of the study showed that cross-language transfer and facilitation of phonological awareness to word reading is not symmetrical across language and may depend both on the characteristics of the different orthographies of the languages being learned.

Verhagen, W., Aarnoutse, C., van Leeuwe, J. (2008). Phonological Awareness and Naming Speed in the Prediction of Dutch Children’s Word Recognition. Scientific Studies of
Reading, 12(4),301-324

The journal is about a study on the effect of phonological awareness and naming speed on Dutch children’s word recognition. The study involved 265 kindergarden children from two elementary schools from the suburbs of the Dutch city of Rotterdam. The study involved three waves with several of approaches taken during the period. The approaches were formal reading instruction, phonological and naming speed test and word recognition test. The result showed that the influence of phonological awareness on the development of reading in a language with a relatively consistent orthography was found to be less than the influence of naming speed.

Whiteley, H. E., Smith, C. D., Connors, L.(2007). Young children at risk of literacy difficulties:
factors predicting recovery from risk following phonologically based intervention. Journal of Research in Reading, 30(3),249-269

This journal is about a longitudinal study into the topic of Young children at risk of literacy difficulties: factors predicting recovery from risk following phonological based intervention. This project acknowledged young children at risk of literacy difficulties and asked why some of these children fail to benefit from phonological based intervention. It involved 67 at-risk children, measured on their reading, spelling, memory, rapid naming, vocabulary and phonological awareness in a daily, 15 week small group intervention. The result point out that letter knowledge and expressive vocabulary are key factors mediating a child’s ability to benefit from a phonological intervention.

Yeh, S. S., & Connell, D. B. (2007). Effects of rhyming, vocabulary and phonemic awareness instruction on phoneme awareness. Journal of Research in Reading, 31(2),134-145

This recent study on phoneme awareness was designed and carried out to evaluate previous hypotheses (from previous studies) on the effects of rhyming, vocabulary and phonemic awareness instruction on phoneme awareness. This study involved 128 children in the age of 4 to 5 years old in Head Start. These children were assigned to three approaches by the researcher. The approaches were phoneme segmentation, rhyming and also vocabulary development. The result strongly indicated that, phoneme segmentation was more effective in developing phoneme segmentation and blending ability than the other two approaches. Not only that, it also more likely to promote future reading ability even for the highly disadvantaged children.

11. Nabila Bt Noor Anwar - October 14, 2011

RESEARCH IN SLA
Nabila Bt Noor Anwar
PGP110026
Annotated Bibliography

Barcroft, J. (2007). Effects of Opportunities for Word Retrieval during Second Language Vocabulary Learning. Language Learning, 57(1), 35–56. Retrieve on 3 October 2011 at http://onlinelibrary.wiley.com/doi/10.1111/j.1467-9922.2007.00398.x.

This study explored the effects of providing opportunities for target word retrieval during second language vocabulary learning. To carry out this study, 44 second language Spanish students who were in their second semester from the University in Midwestern United States were selected as the target group. The method used to carry out this study is by examining the participants’ performance under retrieval oriented and control condition. Each participant were divided into two groups where one group will receive the retrieval oriented condition first followed by the control condition while the other group will received the control condition first and followed by the latter. A posttest was conducted to analyse the results. Findings indicate that students under the retrieval oriented condition scored higher marks than those under control condition. This study can be adapted in an ESL classroom thus provided ESL teachers with an effective approach in teaching vocabulary for speakers of other language.

Chih, M. C & Yi, L. L. (2010). Personalised Context Aware Ubiquitous Learning System for Supporting Effective Vocabulary Learning. Interactive Learning Environments, 18(4), 219-258. Retrieve on 3 October at http://www.dx.doi.org/10.1080/10494820802602329.

This case study highlighted the importance of the situational learning approach of language learning in context by utilising the usage of indoor WLAN. The author proposed a personalised context aware ubiquitous learning system (PCULS) for learning vocabulary by using learners range and location that was detected using wireless positioning technique which enable learners to adapt their learning content of English vocabulary in school environment. This research design uses the quasi experimental design where pre and posttest group of 36 tenth grade students of National Chengchil University which was implemented with the PCULS earlier. Half of the students were assigned to the experimental group in which they will learn vocabulary with the support of the proposed context aware service and the other half were assigned to the control group where they learned the same vocabulary without the support. Findings for this research had clearly shown that the performance of students using the PCULS within context awareness increased than the performance of the students who did without context awareness. All in all, this research has given a new ideology by implementing and integrating technology not only in teaching vocabulary but also in the ESL classroom.

De Groot, A. M. B. (2006). Effects of Stimulus Characteristic and Background Music on Foreign Language Vocabulary Learning and Forgetting. Language Learning, 56(3), 463-503. Retrieve on 4 October 2011 at
http://onlinelibrary.wiley.com/doi/10.1111/j.1467-9922.2006.00374.x.

This research study underlined the effects of three stimulus variables that consist of the frequency and concreteness of the native language words and the typicality of Foreign Language (FL) words. For this research, 36 first year psychology students whose foreign language profile are the same from the University of Amsterdam took part in the research where they were divided into two groups: the music condition and the silent condition. The students were presented with 64 LI – FL translation pairs where each of them consist of a Dutch word and a non word which were then followed by a recall test to test the students. As a result, FL words that were paired with frequent L1 words learned better than a typical FL words and FL word paired with infrequent and abstract L1 words and more learning occurred in the music condition compared to the silent condition. From the findings we can conclude that this study serves its purpose as a stepping stone in creating a new method in teaching vocabulary to students with the use of songs and music that will help trigger students mind thus making vocabulary learning take place in a more effective way.

Hui, T. M. (2008). EFL Vocabulary Acquisition and Retention: Reading plus Vocabulary Enhancement Activities and Narrow Reading. Language Learning, 58(1), 73-115. Retrieve on 3 October 2011 at
http://www.onlinelibrary.wiley.com/doi/10.1111/j.1467-9922.2007.00435.x

The focus of this study emphasize on the comparison of the effectiveness of reading plus vocabulary enhancement activities (RV) and narrow reading (NR) on vocabulary acquisition and retention among EFL secondary learners. In order to carry out this study, 25 third year male students at Senior High School in Taiwan intermediate level of English proficiency volunteered and participated in this research study where they were divided into two groups which is the RV and NR group based on their previous final exam scores. The Reading plus Vocabulary enhancement activities (RV) group read text and practiced variety of vocabulary exercise while the narrow reading (NR) only read supplemented reading materials that were given. The findings of this study resulted in where the RV group had proven to demonstrate more knowledge about the target vocabulary compared to the NR group who showed limited knowledge of the target vocabulary during the acquisition and retention test. Therefore, this study concludes that in order to enhance learners’ vocabulary acquisition, a combination of both reading and providing learners with handful of vocabulary exercise in the latter helps learners better in acquiring their target vocabulary.

Jiyou, J; Yuhao, C; Zhuhui, D; & Meixian, R. (2011). Effects of Vocabulary Acquisition and System on Students Performance in a Blended Learning Class for English Subject. Computers and Education, 58, 63-76. Retrieve on 4 October 2011 at http://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S0360131511001801.

This research focuses on the importance of vocabulary acquisition and assessment in learning English using a proposed a web based system that helps to build individual vocabulary review and assessment function for English instruction. The participants that were used to carry out this study consist of 2 out of 16 classes with the number of students for class 11 is 47 students and class 12 with the total of 49 students in grade 3 of JX junior middle school. Class 11 participated in the integration and evaluation experiment where the students browsed the CSIEC system and were required to answer quizzes and the answers and feedbacks were shown right after they submit their answers for self evaluation whereas class 12 who acts as the controlled class did not participate in this blended learning scheme. Results had shown that students in the blended learning environment improved greatly in their vocabulary acquisition in comparison to the students in the controlled class. Surveys and interviews that were carried out to testify the effectiveness of this new learning environment also stated and support the implementation of this new learning environment for vocabulary acquisition.

Mc Collin, M., O’shea, D. J., & Mc Quiston, K. (2009). Improving Vocabulary and Comprehension Skills of Secondary students from Diverse Background. Preventing School Failure: Alternative Education for Children and Youth, 54(2), 133-136. Retrieve on 4 October 2011, from http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/10459880903217846.

This journal reviews on improving secondary level students from diverse background vocabulary and comprehension skills. Word identification skills and comprehension skills are important components in secondary literacy however many secondary level students from culturally and linguistically diverse background struggle with the needs of readings strategies. Students from diverse background also have very poor vocabulary as they are limitedly exposed with reading activities. As for the comprehension skill, it is a conscious and controllable process which was used for the purpose of attaining a specific cognitive goal and students from culturally diverse background often face problem in these area. Therefore this reading material act as a reference guide for ESL teachers as it gives them ways and strategies that can help improve students from cultural and linguistic diverse background in their vocabulary and comprehension skills.

Tight, D. G. (2010). Perceptual Learning Style Matching and L2 Vocabulary Acquisition. Language Learning, 60(4), 792-838. Retrieve on 4 October 2011 at http://www.onlinelibrary.wiley.com/doi/10.1111/j.1467-9922.2010.00572.x
This article explored the learning and retention of concrete nouns in Spanish L2 which investigates the role of kinesthetic and mixed modality instruction in L2 vocabulary learning through perceptual learning style matching and L2 vocabulary acquisition. Eight classes with the total of 169 students of a 3rd semester Spanish students at Midwestern University volunteered to take part in this study. Each participant completed the learning style assessment that consist of four types (visual, auditory, kinesthetic and mixed) and took a vocabulary pretest and studied 12 words in 3 conditions. A posttest was done later to collect the data. The current study has clearly given the confirmation on previous study about perceptual learning styles preferences where the most common preferences is the visual learning followed by auditory and kinesthetic. This research had provided ESL teachers an insight about different style preferences in L2 vocabulary acquisitions where the findings had clearly indicates that learners of different style preferences are the same in successfully acquiring L2 vocabulary and multiple modality had proven to be more beneficial for participants compared to matching individual preferences.

Vidal, K. (2011). A Comparison of the Effects of Reading and Listening on Incidental Vocabulary Acquisition. Language Learning, 61(1), 219 – 258, Retrieve on 3 October 2011 at http://onlinelibrary.wiley.doi/10.1111/j.1467-9922.2010.00593.x.

This article compares the effects of listening and reading in vocabulary acquisition and comparing the relationship between acquisitions through each of the following factors: frequency of occurrence, type of word, type of elaboration, and predictability from word form and parts. For this study about 248 undergraduate ESP students from the Universidad Autónoma de Madrid were gathered as the subjects of this research. The students participated in a survey which 112 students were assigned to the listening and reading condition where students are made to hear video recorded lectures and read text that were develop from the same source while the rest of the 38 students were neither assigned to the listening nor the reading condition and only completed the vocabulary measures. The finding of this study clearly shown that both reading and listening plays a significant role in vocabulary acquisition although reading made greater vocabulary gains than listening. In conclusion, this research study is a good reading material for future ESL teachers as they will gain a valuable resource that can help in their ESL vocabulary teaching.

Webb, S. (2010). Pre Learning Low Frequency Vocabulary in L2 Television Programmes. Journal of Language Teaching Research, 14(4), 501-515. Retrieved on 4 October 2011 http://www.proquest.umi.com.

This study investigate the potential of pre learning frequently occurring low frequency vocabulary as means to increase the comprehension of television and incidental vocabulary learning through watching television. In order to carry out this study, 8 television programmes were analysed and each of them representing different television genre. These television programmes were analysed using the RANGE to determine 10 most frequently used low frequency word families in each programme and the coverage they represented. This case study suggested that, if incidental vocabulary learning through watching television is similar to reading then pre learning may increase the potential for further vocabulary learning and increasing incidental vocabulary learning by pre learning the most frequently occurring low frequency word families since nowadays people spend time watching television than reading. This article provides an interesting review on the influence of television among people and its usefulness to increase learners L2 vocabulary acquisition as well as giving ESL teachers an idea to apply this method to create an effective method in teaching vocabulary and foster a fun and learning environment in the classroom.

Wen, T. T & Schmitt, N (2008). Towards a model of motivated vocabulary learning: A structural Equation Modelling Approach. Language Learning, 58(2), 357- 400. Retrieve on 3 October 2011 at
http://www.onlinelibrary.wiley.com/doi/10.1111/j.1467-9922.2008.00444.x.
This research offers a structural model that integrates vocabulary knowledge and motivation which supports the importance of motivation in the vocabulary learning process and the division of strategic behavior and focusing on the mastery of individual strategies. For the purpose of this study, 49 students from Taiwan University and 210 students from Chinese University were selected as participants for this research and all of the students majored from all type of courses and had English language education background for more than 6 years. A pilot study was carried out and scales were developed to measure each of the 6 latent variables as well as measuring the strategic learning behavior in vocabulary learning. Three tests were given to the participants: collocation test, polysemy test and prompted productive written form test. In conclusion, the model suggests that the mechanism of motivated vocabulary learning functions as a cyclic process, going through a series of different learning stages as well as constructing involvement in vocabulary learning activities that is under the direct influence of a learner’s self-regulating capacity, When learners master a set of vocabulary learning tactics, they possess not only the skill (driven by metacognitive control and self-regulation) but also the will that is necessary for achieving their learning goals. This procedure produces results that support the hypothesis which was drawn from this study and it was clearly shown that motivation appeared to be involved in all stages of learning process thus allowed the whole process of L2 vocabulary acquisition.

You, J. K. (2011). The Role of Task Induced Involvement and Learner Proficiency in L2 Vocabulary Acquisition. Language Learning, 61(1), 100-140. Retrieve on 4 October 2011 at http://www.onlinelibrary.wiley.com/doi/10.1111/j.1467-9922.2008.00442.

This study informs us on the role of task induced involvement and learners’ proficiency in L2 vocabulary acquisition for ESL learner. This study arouse from several claims about how to classify characteristic in terms of effectiveness L2 learning and one of them came from the involvement load hypothesis by Hulstijn and Laufer 2001, therefore this study was also designed to test certain predictions of involvement load hypothesis in ESL setting across different proficiency level and task type. The study consisted of two experiments that were carried out with 64 ESL learners at two different proficiency levels which were matriculated undergraduate students and Intensive English Program students from the mid western university and the southwestern Intensive English Program. Experiment 1 tested the hypothesis with three tasks imposing different levels of task induced involvement. Results found in both of the experiments confirms Hulstijn and Laufer (2001) findings and both experiments indicate that higher involvement encouraged by the task resulted in more effective initial vocabulary learning as well as better retentions of new words.

12. SITI AISHAH BINTI SAHAIRI - October 14, 2011

NAME : SITI AISHAH BINTI SAHAIRI
MATRIC NO : PGP110013
TOPIC : THE USE OF TECHNOLOGY IN ENGLISH LANGUAGE TEACHING

Eskil, M., Ozgan, H., Balkar, B. (2010). Students’ opinions on using classroom technology in science and technology lessons – a case study for Turkey (Kilis City). The Turkish Online Journal of Educational Technology, 9(1), 165-175. Retrieved October 10 2011, from http://www.tojet.net/volumes/v9i1.pdf.

Research on students’ perception towards integration of classroom technology in Science and Technology lesson was conducted at four primary schools in Turkey. It was a case study and used random sampling method. The finding indicated that students’ perception of using classroom technology were different as it depends on students’ cultural background.

Hayat Al-Khatib. (2009). How has pedagogy changed in a digital age. European Journal of Open, Distance & E-Learning. Retrieved October 10 2011, from http://www.eric.ed.gov/PDFS/EJ911771.pdf.

A case study conducted at Arab Open University in Lebanon involved senior students who were majoring in English. The main concern was investigating the outcome of integrating ICT supported learning. It is found that bringing technology into teaching had improved standard of learning.

Hind Al-Fadda, & Maha Al-Yahya. (2010). Using web blogs as a tool to encourage pre-class reading, post-class reflections and collaboration in higher education. US-China Education Review, 7(7), 100-106. Retrieved October 10 2011, from http://www.eric.ed.gov/PDFS/ED511312.pdf.

This study aimed to see how web blogs could encourage pre class reading and post class reflections. In a survey of ESL graduate and software engineering students conducted at King Saud University, Saudi Arabia, it is found that there were positive attitudes towards the use of web blogs for pre class reading and post class reflections.

Irshad Hussain, & Muhammad Aslam Adeeb. (2009). Role of mobile technology in promoting campus-wide learning environment. The Turkish Online Journal of Educational Technology, 8(3), 48-56. Retrieved October 10 2011, from http://www.tojet.net/volumes/v8i3.pdf.

Four aspects of using mobile technology (MT) at tertiary level – appropriateness, flexibility, interactivity, availability & usefulness; and identifying problems while using MT in learning were the main concerns in this study. It took place at International Islamic University of Islamabad and involved all Ph.D scholars and faculty of the Department of Education. It was a descriptive study and questionnaires were used. The main findings showed that there were high percentage in appropriateness and flexibility. However, problems still occurred in using MT for learning purposes

Kalelioglu, F., & Gulbahar, Y. (2010). Investigating the usage of blogs in educational settings from multiple intelligences perspective. The Turkish Online Journal of Educational Technology, 9(2), 132-143. Retrieved October 10 2011, from http://www.tojet.net/volumes/v9i2.pdf.

Quantitative and qualitative methods were carried out in the study of blog usage in learning process from the perspective of multiple intelligences. It conducted at a private university in Turkey and involved students of Computer II course. It indicated that students preferred to create, manage and share their blogs for academic purposes. In terms of multiple intelligences, it was related to three intelligence types – interpersonal, intrapersonal and linguistics intelligence.

Kert, S.B. (2011). The use of SMS support in programming education. The Turkish Online Journal of Educational Technology, 10(2), 268-273. Retrieved October 10 2011, from http://www.tojet.net/volumes/v10i2.pdf.

A quantitative study was done at Yildiz Technical University and the population was students of Computer Education and Instructional Technologies Department. The study is about the use of SMS support in programming education and at the end of the study, it is found that students’ academic achievement were influenced by this SMS support.

Mcconatha, D., Praul, M., & Lynch, M.L. (2008). Mobile learning in higher education: an empirical assessment of a new educational tool. The Turkish Online Journal of Educational Technology, 7(3), 15-21. Retrieved October 10 2011, from http://www.tojet.net/volumes/v7i3.pdf.

Research on introducing Mobile Learning, or M-Learning in college classroom took place at midsized state university in the Northeast and involved students who studied Introduction to Sociology course. It used M-Learning product developed by HotLava Software. The finding showed that students who used M-Learning tool would perform better than those who did not use it.

Ozad, B.E., & Kutoglu, U. (2010). The use of the internet in media education. The Turkish Online Journal of Educational Technology, 9(2), 245-255. Retrieved October 10 2011, from http://www.tojet.net/volumes/v9i2.pdf.

Research on investigating students’ attitudes towards Internet usage in media education was conducted at Eastern Mediterranean University. It involved students of Communication and Media Studies Faculty. Questionnaires were used in this study and it is found that students showed positive attitude towards the use of Internet in learning process.

Reis, M.G.A.D., Cabral, L., Peres, E., Bessa, M., Valente, A., Morais, R,. et al. (2010). Using information technology based exercises in primary mathematics teaching of children with cerebral palsy and mental retardation: a case study. The Turkish Online Journal of Educational Technology, 9(3), 106-118. Retrieved October 10 2011, from http://www.tojet.net/volumes/v9i3.pdf.

A study done in Portugal involved mental retardation and cerebral palsy students using Information Technology Based exercise in learning mathematics. It was a case study and done in qualitative method. At the end of the study, it is found that multimedia exercises were more preferable as compared to the traditional method which was a paper form. Students also showed more positive learning attitudes while using multimedia exercises.

Sahin, Y.G., Balta, S., & Ercan, T. (2010). The use of internet resources by university students during their course projects elicitation: a case study. The Turkish Online Journal of Educational Technology, 9(2), 234-244. Retrieved October 10 2011, from http://www.tojet.net/volumes/v9i2.pdf.

A case study done in Yasar University involved students from Tourism and Hotel Management Faculty. The main concern of this study was investigating how students gather information and access internet for their course project. Based on the findings, it is found that they could find reliable information when using less accessible and more secure internet resources.

Tilfarlioglu, F.Y. (2011). An international dimension of the student’s attitudes towards the use of English in Web 2.0 technology. The Turkish Online Journal of Educational Technology, 10(3), 63-68. Retrieved October 10 2011, from http://www.tojet.net/volumes/v10i3.pdf.

In a quantitative study conducted at six different universities and three high schools in Turkey and Iraq, questionnaires, semi-structured and focus group interviews were used. The aim was identifying the attitude of undergraduate and high school students towards the use of English in Web. 2.0 technologies. It is found that, the use of Web 2.0 technologies in learning was good.

Tutkun, O.F. (2011). Internet access, use and sharing levels among students during the teaching-learning process. The Turkish Online Journal of Educational Technology, 10(3), 152-160. Retrieved October 10 2011, from http://www.tojet.net/volumes/v10i3.pdf.

Triangulation techniques were used in this study as it combined both quantitative (the use of questionnaires) and qualitative methods (used structured interview). This study involved students at Sakarya University, Turkey. This study tried to see the level of these areas – accessibility, usage and knowledge sharing through Internet among students and it is found that there were high percentages in those areas.

13. Gwendolyn Gail Yong - October 14, 2011

Bigelow, M., Delmas, R., Hansen, K., Tarone, E. (2006). Literacy and the processing of recasts in SLA. TESOL Quarterly, 40(4), pp 665-689.

This article talks about the role of literacy in the SLA orals skills specifically in recalling recasts among a large number of Somalia families where eight participants aged between 15 to 27 years old were chosen through a survey research. The results of the research was that participants with a moderate literacy level did significantly better in recalling the types of recasts (length and modification of the sentence) in this study.

Derwing, T.M., and Munro M.J. (2005). Second language accent and pronunciation teaching: A research-based. TESOL Quarterly, 39(3), pp 379-397

The article examines the relationship between accent and pronunciation in the English language. The authors suggest that teachers should have the credibility in phonology by setting goals, prepare pedagogical priorities and determining effective teaching practices in order to support their students in the target language. This article also talks about how research can help teachers in overcoming the challenges in the area of L2 accent and pronunciation, where the current problem and misconceptions among ESL teachers are that they do not have formal preparations to teach pronunciation.

Ellis, N.C. (2006). Selective attention and transfer phenomena in L2 acquisition: Contingency, cue competition, salience, interference, overshadowing, blocking, and perceptual learning. Applied Linguistics, 27(2), pp 164-194.

This article talks about how L2 learners experience selective attention and transfer phenomena in L2 acquisition in which the problem will occur in the area of L2 acquisition and why the L2 acquisition stops temporarily and L1 acquisition does not. The difficulties faced by the L2 learners are overcome by the transfer phenomena. One of the major problem L2 learners face in the L2 acquisition is shaped by L1.

Hell, J. G., Tokowicz, N. (2010). Event-related brain potentials and second language learning: Syntatic processing in late L2 learners at different L2 proficiency levels. Second Langauge Research, 26(1), pp 43-74.

This article talks about the ability of late L2 adult learners in processing the L2 in a native-like way and what is the nature of the differences in L2 processing among L2 learners at different levels of proficiency. A case study was done among adult learners. It was found that late L2 learners have minimal problems regarding the event-related brain potential. Learners may have difficulties understanding syntactic structures due to L1 and L2 differences.

Ionin, T., and Montrul, S. (2010). The role of L1 transferin the interpretation of articles with definite plurals in English. Language Learning: A Journal of Reseach in Language Studies, 60(4), pp 877-925.

This article studies about the L2 acquisition of the understanding of plural noun phrases among 72 participants of Argentineans and Koreans residing in their respective countries, in which the researcher conducted a survey research in this study. It was found that both L2 group had different problems in different aspects of the plural phrases. Spanish speakers had lowest performance on definite plurals whereas Korean speakers had the lowest performance on bare plurals. There is a possibility that both groups may recover from the negative transfer.

Ionin, T., and zubizarreta, M.L. (2010). Introduction to the special issue: Selective first language influence and retreat from negative transfer. Second Language Research, 26(3), pp 283-291.

This article talks about how L1 learners acquire the L2 through a selective first language influence and how they recover from a negative transfer. The authors reviewed five different research articles in relation to first language influence and retreat from negative transfer. From the reviews, the authors found that the tense and grammatical areas are one of the barrier features of English and how they can master it through sufficient exposure of the L2. Therefore, recovery is possible.

Montrul, S. (2010). Dominant language transfer in adult second language learners and heritage speakers. Second Language Research, 26(3), pp 293-327.

This article talks about the dominance of the L1 towards L2 in adult learners and early bilinguals of L1 and L2. A case study conducted by the researcher among 139 participants enrolled in Spanish language class at University of Illinois, Urbana-Champaign campus in the USA. It was found that learners of Spanish allow the influence of their L1 in the second language acquisition. The gap between childhood bilingualism and adult L2 acquisition was identified. Adult learners experience transfer effects which affects their grammatical system .

Oh, E. (2010). Recovery from first-language transfer: The second language acquisition of English double objects by Korean speakers. Second Language Research, 26(3), pp 407-439.

This article talks about an in depth study of a previous research done by the same researcher and a partner on the second language acquisition of English double objects by Korean speakers from an influence of the L1. 33 adult L1 Korean speakers and 11 adult native English speakers participated in this study through a case study in Korea. In the previous study, the acquisition of English benefactive double object lags behind that of its counterpart goal double object. In the present research, it was found that most advanced learners are capable of acquiring semantic properties of both types of English double objects.

Sifakis, N.C., and Sougari, A. (2005). Pronunciation issues and EIL pedagogy in the periphery: A survery of Greek state school teachers’ belief. TESOL Quarterly, 39(3), pp 467-487.

This article discussed about the beliefs of Greek state school teachers on the issues of pronunciation in the learning of English as an International Language. A survery based research was done among 421 teachers teaching in a Greek State school in Greece. Teachers teaching in different levels have different beliefs about the importance of pronunciation in EIL. Primary-level teachers believed that pronunciation is important, whereas secondary-level teachers think otherwise. They believe that the use of norm-based practices in the classroom was more practical.

Taguchi, N. (2007). Development of speed and accuracy in pragmatic comprehension in English as a foreign language. TESOL Quarterly, 41(2), pp 313-338.

This article talks about the development of pragmatic comprehension ability across time. The study was done in a period of 7 weeks. A case study was done among 92 Japanese learners of English and 20 native English speakers in a university in Japan. The results from this study shows that the relationship between proficiency and accuracy, and between lexical access and comprehension speed, is not significant. It shows that L2 learners seems to lag behind in SLA and does not develop as quickly as accurate demonstration of pragmatic knowledge as in L1.

Walter, C. (2008). Phonology in second language reading: Not an optional extra. TESOL Quarterly, 42(3), pp 455-474.

This article examines the role of phonology in L2 reading among 61 participants from state secondary schools of a provincial French town and from schools in two southern English counties in France. A cross-sectional study was design and it was found that the good L1 French comprehenders and L1 English learners had minimal problems in recognising the phonological traits given in a listening test because English and French are somewhere in between each other. French L2 learners of English don’t usually get confused.

Yamashita, J. (2007). The relationship of reading attitudes between L1 and L2: An investigation of adult EFL learners in Japan. TESOL Quarterly, 41(1), pp 81-105.

This article discussed about how the L1 influences in the second language reading attitude. A survey research was done among 291 Japanese EFL learners whose exposure to L2 (English) was largely limited to the classroom in a university in Japan. It was found that the reading attitude in L1 plays an important basis in L2 reading, where proficiency contributes to the negative attitude in reading.

14. Ghivitha a/p Kalimuthu - October 14, 2011

Annotated bibliography
Name : Ghivitha a/p Kalimuthu
IC No : 860528236602
Matric No : PGP 110004

Reciprocal Teaching to Overcome Students’ Problem in Reading Comprehension.

Alireza Karbalaei, Fatemeh Azimi Amoli. (2011). The effect of paraphrasing strategy training on the reading comprehension of college students at the undergraduate level. Asian EFL Journal, 13(3), 229-244. Retrieved 08 October 2011, from http://www.asian-efl-journal.com/September_2011_ak.php

This study is examining the effect of paraphrasing strategy among 63 college students who majoring in English. Pre-test and Post-test of same reading comprehension is used as method to examining the effect of paraphrasing. The finding of this study shows students improve their reading skills through the development of the students’ paraphrasing skills.

Burgoyne.K, Whiteley. H.E and Hutchinson. J.M. (2011). The development of comprehension and reading-related skills in children learning English as an additional language and their monolingual English-speaking peers. British Journal of Educational Psychology, 81, 344-354.

Developmental progression of reading and listening comprehension skills and a range of reading related skills in EAL learners who are first language origin of South Asian and their monolingual peers are examined in this study. Total of 39 EAL learning students and 30 monolingual students participated in the study. Standardized measures of comprehension, vocabulary, reading accuracy and reading fluency used to measure students development in reading related skills. The finding of the study shows students of EAL demonstrate fast and accuracy reading skills than the monolingual students.

Caldwell. J, Leslie,L. (2010). Thinking aloud in expository text: processes and outcomes. Journal of Literacy Research, 42, 308-340.

This study is about answering 3 questions :- (1) what kind of think aloud statements, particular what kinds of inferences are made by middle school students while reading expository text? (2) Does thinking aloud affect comprehension as measured by recall and answer to question? (3) Does thinking aloud add value to the assessment of comprehension beyond what is learned through recall and question answering? Total 68 middle school students took part in two segments, where first segment students read expository texts and think aloud and in another segment students did not think aloud. At the end of the segments, students have to recall the text and answer the comprehension answer. The finding of this study is students able to recall the text which done by think aloud and the think aloud skill may provide a more sensitive pictures to the readers’ processing than recall the answer without any aid.

Chavez, M.M. (2007). The orientation of learner language use in peer work: teacher role, learner role and individual identity. Language Teaching Research, 11(2), 161–188.

Orientation of language-use practices during in-class peer work of second-year college learners of German in three different classes of a multi-section course, which taught by three different teachers at a public American Midwestern research university, is studied in this study. Video tape and interview method used to collect the language practices done by three teachers. The finding of this study is learners have orientated themselves between established during teacher-led instruction, their role as institutional learner and their individual identity.

Doolittle, P.E., Hicks, D., Triplett, F. C., Nicholas, W.D., Young, C.A. (2006). Reciprocal teaching for reading comprehension in higher education: A strategy for fostering the deeper understanding of texts. International Journal of Teaching and Learning in Higher Education, 17 (2), 106-118.

This study is about five teachers using reciprocal teaching using different types of text. The texts used in the study are scholar articles, historical articles, technology articles and language articles. Each one of the teacher used different way of applying the reciprocal teaching style. The method used to collect the data is by asking the students to produce composition, notes of keywords, presentation. The finding of this study is the reciprocal teaching has successfully given positive impact to the students’ reading comprehension ability.

Faisal Al-Homoud & Schmitt. N. (2009). Extensive reading in a challenging environment: a comparison of extensive and intensive reading approaches in Saudi Arabia. Language Teaching Research, 13(4), 383–401.

Extensive reading class is compared with traditional class which involving intensive reading and vocabulary exercises in this study. 70 male EFL students in the processional Intensive Course at the College of Languages and Translation at Al-Imam Mohammad Ibn-Saud Islamic University, Riyadh, Saudi Arabia are selected and divided into two groups, were one group use intensive reading approach and another group use extensive reading approach. Vocabulary size, reading comprehension, reading speed and questionnaire are conducted to compare the reading. The finding of the study is extensive reading shows more positive result compares to intensive reading.

Fatemeh, T. (2011). The effect of metacognitive strategy instruction on EFL learner’s reading comprehension performance and metacognitive awareness. Asian EFL Journal, 13(1), 272-300. Retrieved 08 October 2011, from http://www.asian-efl-journal.com/PDF/March-2011-ft.pdf

This study is examining the effect of metacognitive strategy on 93 university EFL students’ reading comprehension performance and students’ metacognitive awareness. The students are divided into three classes; two classes are assigned as experimental groups and last class as control group. The Test of English as a Foreign Language (TOEFL), SILL Questionnaire and reading comprehension is used to examine the effect of metacognitive. The finding of this study show metacognitive strategy contribute to the improvement of students’ reading comprehension and students’ awareness to metacognitive increased.

Hui, F.S. (2010). Reading strategy use, self-efficacy and EFL reading comprehension. Asian
EFL Journal, 12(2), 18-42. Retrieved 08 October 2011, from http://www.asian-efl-journal.com/June_2010_hfs.php

This study is investigating 53 Taiwanese English major freshmen from I-Shou University using three reading strategies which is cognitive, metacognitive and compensation, to understand the impact on self-efficacy and the relationship between the reading strategies and self-efficacy on the students’ reading comprehension. Pre- test and post- test same comprehension, reading strategy questionnaire, self-efficacy questionnaire and student interviews method used in this study. The finding of the study is metacognitive is the reading strategy frequently used by the students and there is positive relationship between reading strategy and perceptions of self-efficacy.

Jane Burdett, (2007). Degrees of separation – Balancing intervention and independence in group work assignments. The Australian Educational Researcher, 34(1), 1-17.

This is study about exploring issues such as attitudes of university academics to the purposes and outcomes of group work and the strategies used by the academics to facilitate effective group work. 10 academics from an Australian university are selected and interviewed by researcher about their experiences when setting group assignments by using semi structured, in-depth and open-ended interview questions. The findings are most of the university academics are aware of students having problem during the group work assignments.

Lam, W.Y.K (2009). Examining the effects of metacognitive strategy instruction on ESL
group discussions: A synthesis of approaches. Language Teaching Research, 13(2), 129–150.

Effects of metacognitive strategy instruction (MCSI) on task performance and on strategy use for oral language tasks in the English as second language (ESL) classroom are investigated in this study. Synthesis of approaches to investigate the impact of strategy instruction involving 20 ESL students in each classroom is investigated in the study. Group discussion, questionnaire and observation used to study effects of using metacognitive on task performance. The finding of the study is MSCI might associate with improvements in both “English proficiency” and “task effectiveness”.

Vukman, K.B & Licardo, M. (2010). How cognitive, metacognitive, motivational and emotional self-regulation influence school performance in adolescence and early adulthood. Educational Studies, 36(3), 259-268.

This study is about examining the difference of self-regulation related to academic achievement in adolescents and young adults. Students who participated in this study are from 14-15, 17-18 and 22-23 age groups. Self –report questionnaires are used as method to find out about influences of cognitive, metacognitive, motivational and emotional self-regulation. The finding of the study is metacognitive self-regulation are important predictor of school achievement at all age development and motivational self-regulation significant impact on first and second age groups’ students’ performance.

Yoshimura. F. (2006). Does manipulating foreknowledge of output tasks lead to differences
in reading behaviour, text comprehension and noticing of language form. Language Teaching Research, 10(4), 419–434.

This study is about examining whether manipulating foreknowledge of output tasks leads to differences in reading behaviour, text comprehension and noticing of language form among 57 freshman and sophomores in Japanese University. Task used are reading for memorisation, reading for retelling and reading for visualization. Pre-reading, experimental text in English and post-reading is used as method to examining the manipulation of foreknowledge that lead to differences in reading behaviour, text comprehension and noticing in language. The finding of the study foreknowledge of output task did influence the reading behaviour of the students.

15. Anonymous - October 14, 2011

Dr, this is my biblio…

Cassandra Jothi Krishnan
PGP110022

Topic: Enhancing vocabulary through reading strategies among ESL diploma students.

Akbari, Z. & Tahririan, M.H. (2009). Vocabulary learning strategies in an ESP context: The case of Para/medical English in Iran. Asian EFL Journal, 11(1). Retrieved 9 October 2011 from
http://www.asian-efl-journal.com/March_09_za.php

This qualitative study focusing on the vocabulary learning strategies in an ESP context conducted among 137 para/medical undergraduates in Isfahan University of Medical Sciences where questionnaires, observations and interviews to collect data and the findings are teachers should be aware of students needs in learning to facilitate in the development and utilizing of students vocabulary.

Fatimah Hashim & Goh, H.C. (2006). Use of L1 in L2 reading comprehension among tertiary ESL learners. Reading in a Foreign Language, 18(1). Retrieved 5 October 2011 from
http://nflrc.hawaii.edu/rfl/april2006/goh/goh.html

This article is the study of four undergraduates from Universiti Pendidikan Sultan Idris in Perak on the extent of L1 use among L2 readers while reading L2 texts in a group. The methods used are thinking aloud protocols as the methodology as group discussions were taped. The finding shows that L1 was frequently used when they encountered difficulty in comprehending L2 text. Therefore, think aloud in L1 in a group is encouraged as it helps to improve students’ L2 speaking and skills.

Gorsuch, G. & Taguchi, E. (2010). Developing reading fluency and comprehension using repeated readings: Evidence from longitudinal students’ reports. Language Teaching Research, 14(1) 27-59. Retrieved 5 October 2011 from
http://ltr.sagepub.com

This article is a study on developing reading fluency and comprehension using repeated reading among 30 intermediate college students in Vietnam using qualitative quasi-experimental study and the finding proves that repeated reading had positive effects on the students’ reading fluency and comprehension as they become better at processing the text.

Iwai, Y. (2010). Re-envisioning reading comprehension for English language learners. The Internet Tesl Journal. Retrieved 6 October 2011 from http://iteslj.org/Articles/Iwai-Reading.html

This article studies the challenges English language learners face in developing their English reading comprehension skills. The researcher claimed that little knowledge of vocabulary, culturally different schemata and use of the first language are the problems faced by these learners. Iwai suggested that teachers should understand and respect learners’ individual differences as well as encouraging bi-literacy and using explicit instruction in meaningful context as it help learners in reading L2.

Janzen, J. (2007). Preparing teachers of second language reading. Tesol Quarterly, 41(4) 707-729. Retrieved 5 October 2011 from http://www.jstor.org/stable/40264403

This article is a study on preparing teachers of second language reading among 6 ELL’s teachers in a small urban school district in USA. The methods used in this study are interview and classroom observation and the finding indicates that teachers should address to 13 aspects of teaching reading; practice, goals and context.

Kawabata, T. (2007). Teaching second language reading strategies. The Internet Tesl Journal. Retrieved 6 October 2011 from http://iteslj.org/Techniques/Kawabata-ReadingStrategies.html

Kawabata’s article offers selections of activities that can be useful in EFL classes to teach reading to students. Taking into consideration of the real objective which is to help students in learning effective reading strategies to develop their reading comprehension, the reading process is categorised into 3 parts: Pre-reading activities, during reading activities and post-reading activities. Most of the activities suggested would help to generate the development of students’ comprehension knowledge.

Lu, F.L. (2008. The study of English learners’ synthesizing process while reading. Asian EFL Journal, 10 (1). Retrieved 9 October 2011 from http://www.asian-efl-journal.com/March_08_lfl.php

This article is a descriptive study of grade 10-12 students from a senior high school in Taipan, Taiwan on the synthesizing process while reading. The method use to collect data is the “Retelling Assessment Technique” and the finding is the ability of learners to retell synthesizing info over reading passage with the assistance of their prior knowledge.

Mehrpour, S. (2008). A comparison of the effects of two vocabulary teaching techniques. Asian EFL Journal, 10(2). Retrieved 9 October 2011, from http://www.asian-efl-journal.com/June_08_sm.php

This article is a study conducted among 50 students of Iran Language Institute between the ages of 15-30 on the comparison of the effects of vocabulary teaching techniques; contextualizing and decontextualizing using the descriptive statistics and T-Test on two different groups; control and experimental groups. The finding showed that decontextualizing technique is better than contextualizing technique for students of low proficiency level.

Singhal, M. (1998) A Comparison of L1 and L2 Reading: Cultural Differences and Schema. The Internet Tesl Journal. Retrieved 6 October 2011 from
http://iteslj.org/Articles/Singhal-ReadingL1L2.html

Singhal offers an in-depth understanding of the important basic elements with reading in a second or foreign. She explains how reading in L1 can be different from and similar to reading in L2 in the contexts of schemata, textual and linguistic. The problems faced by readers, whom English or other foreign language were an L2 if they were given those texts compare to readers whom English or other foreign language were the L1. Singhal has discussed that background knowledge serves as an important role in understanding reading text.

Tercanlioglu, L. (2004). Postgraduate students’ use of reading strategies in L1 and ESL context: Link to success. International Education Journal, 5(4). Retrieved 6 October 2011 from http://iej.cjb.net

This article is a study of 11 postgraduate non-native English speakers and 6 postgraduate native English speakers in a University in the United Kingdom on the use of reading strategies in L1 and ESL contexts. The methods used are interview, questionnaires and Adult Survey of Reading and the findings showed both groups preferences for reading strategies in their reading efficacy.

Wang, Y. & Sachs, G.T. (2011), Comprehensible input through extensive reading: Problems in English language teaching in China. Asian EFL Journal, 53. Retrieved 13 October 2011 from
http://www.asian-efl-journal.com/PTA/Volume_53_ym.pdf

This research investigated the issues of English language input where extensive reading is introduced to elementary and junior learners at three different schools: private, public elementary and junior sector at a public secondary school in China. The methods used are interviewing English teachers and examining textbooks and the findings are; students receive minimal language input and are not sufficiently exposed to English language.

Weil, N. (2008). Vocabulary size, background characteristics and reading skills of Korean Intensive English students. Asian EFL Journal, 10 (4). Retrieved 9 October 2011 from
http://www.asian-efl-journal.com/December_08_nw.php

This article examines the relationship between the size of vocabulary, background experience in learning English and student’s skill in the reading of academic text on11 Korean students of the Intensive English Program and 5 Korean undergraduate students at Utah State University where Swansea Level Tests are used to test their vocabulary size along with questionnaires. This study concludes that a better reader promotes syntactic knowledge to engage on the text but less on compensatory strategies.

Yang, A. (2007). Cultivating a reading habit: Silent reading at school. Asian EFL Journal, 9(2). Retrieved 9 October 2011 from http://www.asian-efl-journal.com/June_07_ay.php

This article is a study on the effectiveness of a new whole school approach reading subject; cultivating a reading habit through silent reading in a Chinese secondary school in Hong Kong by interviewing and giving questionnaires to teachers and students for data collection. The finding proves that students develop reading habit when reading during school time.

Yun, J & Cervantes, M. (2006). Defining words: What can teachers and students do?”. The Internet Tesl Journal. Retrieved 6 October 2011 from http://iteslj.org/Technique/Yun-DefiningWords.html

This article is a research on how students and teachers define difficult vocabulary effectively. The methods are survey on the usage of dictionary for intermediate and advance learners in an academic university, interviewing teachers and observing classes focusing on vocabulary and word learning strategies. Therefore, it is a teacher’s responsibility to ensure that learners can produce words and know how to use it appropriately, with the right meaning and grammatically correct rather than recognizing the word alone.

Cassandra Jothi Krishnan - December 12, 2011

Dr Jessie,
Some of the articles I used are non-ISI journals. I couldn’t get enough related articles or journals for my biblio and those that are related needed to be purchased which the UM library hasn’t purchased. Those non-ISI articles which i have used are very much related to my topic.Therefore, I apologize for not following your requirement. Really sorry Dr. Jessie.

16. Nur Asma bt. Abd Somad - October 14, 2011

Name: Nur Asma bt. Abd Somad
Matric No. : PGP 110018

Research topic : The use of songs to foster language learning.

Baleghizadeh, S., & Darhagi, Z. (2010) The effect of nursery rhymes on EFL children’s reading ability. New England Reading Association Journal, 46(1), 71-75

The purpose of this study was to examine the impact of using nursery rhymes on teaching sounds to second language learners of English and their ability to read. 20 beginner learners, aged from 7-9 at the Iran Language Institute (ILI) were divided into two groups: control and experimental. Results shown that using nursery rhymes to teach sounds to English beginner learners able to achieve the desire effect on the improvement of their reading ability.

Fonseca-Mora, M.C., Toscano-Fuentes, C., & Wermke, K. (2011). Melodies that help: The Relation between Language Aptitude and Musical Intelligence. Anglistik International Journal of English Studies, 22(1),101-118

This article is made to explore the relationship between music and language learning and to see how the development of auditory skills in L2 can benefit from the use of musical elements in language classroom. 49 students aged 11 to 13 from a school participated in the study. The study is conducted using various tests, questionnaire and direct observations. Results prove that melodies do help language learning.

Hallam, S. (2010). The power of music: Its impact on the intellectual, social and personal development of children and young people. International Journal of Music Education, 28, 269

This paper reviews the empirical evidence relating to the effects of active engagement with music on the intellectual, social and personal development of children and young people. It explains how musical skills may transfer to other activities if the processes involved are similar. It suggests that the positive effects of engagement with music on personal and social development only occur if it is an enjoyable and rewarding experience. This has implications for the quality of the teaching.

Kouri, T., & Talendar, K. (2008). Children’s reading comprehension and narrative recall in sung and spoken story contexts. Children Language Teaching and Therapy, 24, 329.

The purpose of this study was to determine if sung story books readings would enhance story comprehension and narrative re-telling in children with histories of speech and language delay. 30 kindergarten and first grade children listened to story books read in either a sung or spoken voice. Findings revealed that story re-telling and comprehension scores did not differ between conditions.

Legg, R. (2009). Using music to accelerate language learning: an experimental study. Research in Education : An Interdisciplinary International Research Journal, 82 (1), 1- 12.

This empirical study is made to discover the relationship by asking whether music, employed as a teaching tool in the modern foreign language (MFL) classroom can help to accelerate pupils’ language learning. 56 pupils at a large secondary school in the UK were divided into two groups: experimental and control groups. The implications for this finding are discussed, in the context of the current debate about extrinsic justification of the arts.

Mizener, C. P. (2008). Enhancing language skills through music. General Music Today, 21, 11.

This article describes language- enhancing activities in those 3 areas and explains how they strengthen language development. This article includes considerations for selecting songs appropriately for reinforcing language skills. Finally, examples of music listening activities demonstrate how students may develop all the modalities of communication including receiving and transmitting information.

Moreno, S. Bialystok, E. Barac, R. Schellenberg, G. E. Cepeda, N. J & Chau, T. (2011). Short-Term Music Training Enhances Verbal Intelligence & Executive Function. Psychological Science.

This longitudinal design study with three phases: pre-test, training and post-test reports the effects of two interactive computerized training programs developed for pre-school children : one for music and one for visual art. The study held from various neighbourhoods in a large city consisting 71 children between 4 to 6 years old. The findings demonstrate that transfer of a high-level cognitive skill is possible in early childhood.

Ogawa, Y., & Murao, T. (2007). The acquisition process of children’s game songs during peer teaching : A semi-structured experiment with pre-school children. Research Studies in Music Education

This semi-structured experiment was to identify children’s acquisition processes when learning playground game songs. 20 pairs of children aged 4 to 6 years were participated in the study and each pair consisting a young child learner and a senior child teacher. Results suggested that child teachers change their strategy of teaching depending on the conditions of instruction.

Racette, A., & Peretz, I. (2007). Learning Lyrics: To sing or not to sing? Memory & Cognition, 35 (2), 242-53

This experimental study is done to provide evidence against the belief that learning verbal materials through song should facilitate word recall. 36 university students from French were participated in the experiments with various conditions. Altogether, the results indicate that the text and the melody of a song have separate representations in memory, and thus making singing a dual task to perform, at least in the first steps of learning.

Rafiee, M., Kassaian, Z., & Dastjerdi, H. (2010). The application of humorous song in EFL classrooms and its effects on listening comprehension. English Language Teaching, 3(4), 100-108

This paper examines the effects that humorous songs may have on listening comprehension. To achieve this aim, an experimental research study was conducted in Iranian English Institutes and on immediate and delayed recall by a group of EFL learners. The findings show that the experimental group outperformed the control group in a listening comprehension test, but humorous songs’ effect does not make much difference between immediate and delayed recall test scores.

Stadler, M., Watson, M., & Skahan, S. (2007) Rhyming and vocabulary: effects of lexical restructuring. Communications Disorders Quarterly, 28(4), 197-205

The purpose of this investigation was to determine the effect of lexical restructuring on children’s phonological awareness. Thirty three preschool children were assessed for vocabulary skills and ability to detect rhyme. Results supported the lexical restructuring theory because expressive vocabulary abilities were correlated with rhyming ability.

White, J.L., & Turner, C. E (2005) Comparing children’s oral ability in two ESL programs. The Canadian Modern Language Review, 61(4), 491 – 517

This study investigates performance on oral tasks across two groups of francophone learners with different ESL instruction. Six classes were involved: one intensive ESL and one regular Grade 6 ESL class from each of three schools. Three tasks were used: Audio- Pal, Story Retell and Info Gap. Results indicate that the intensive ESL gained significantly more than the regular ESL students in their oral ability on the three tasks.

17. khayaetiry - October 14, 2011

Good Day Dr Jessie,

Name: Khayaetiry a/p Mani
I.C. No.: 850925-10-5842
Matrix No.: PGP110027
Subject:PBGS6113 – Research in Second Language Acquisition

Research Topic: Factors Affecting in First Language and Second Language Acquisition
.
Abrahamsson, N. & Hyltenstam, K. (2009). Age of onset and nativelikeness in a second language:listener perception versus linguistic scrutiny. Journal of Language Learning, 59(2) , 249 – 306.Retrieved 10 October 2011, from http://ezproxy.um.edu.my:2694/doi/10.1111/j.1467-9922.2009.00507.x/abstract

The study was conducted in a large-scale study of Spanish/Swedish bilinguals (n  = 195) with differing ages of onset of acquisition (less than 1–47 years), all of whom identify themselves as potentially nativelike in their second language. The discussion has traditionally been framed within the paradigm of a critical period for language acquisition and guided by the question of whether second language acquisition is constrained by the maturation of the brain. The work presented in this article can be positioned among those studies that have focused exclusively on the apparent counter examples to the critical period.

Amir, O., & Doreen, G. (2011). Articulation rate in childhood and adolescence. Journal of Language and Speech, 54(2) , 225-240. Retrieved 10 October 2011, from
http://ezproxy.um.edu.my:2066/ehost/pdfviewer/pdfviewer?sid=4bd3e2c9-06c6-4e6b-aae953d8d0ff6d62%40sessionmgr111&vid=2&hid=119

This study aimed to enumerate articulation rate among Hebrew speaking children and adolescents across a wide age range assessed age-related differences vary according to metric. One hundred and forty children, in seven age groups, participated in this cross-sectional study. Articulation rate among normally fluent children and adolescents increased with age. Furthermore, an increase in rate was evident after the age of 13 years and it is because of this critical period, adults’ second language acquisition is governed by general learning strategies too.

Baker, W., Trofimovich, P., Flege, J., Mack, M., & Halter, R. (2008). Child- adult differences in second language phonological learning: the role of cross-language similarities. Journal of Language and Speech, 51(4), 317-342.
Retrieved 10 October 2011, from http://las.sagepub.com/content/51/4/317.full.pdf+html

This study involves 64 native Korean- and English-speaking children and adults. It evaluates whether age effects on second language (L2) speech learning derive from changes in how the native language (L1) and L2 sound systems interact. These findings, which partially support the ‘interaction hypothesis’, are discussed in relation to second language speech learning.

Birdsong, D. (2006). Age and second language acquisition and processing: a selective overview. Journal of Language Learning, 56(1-2) , 9 – 41. Retrieved 11 October 2011, from
http://ezproxy.um.edu.my:2694/doi/10.1111/j.1467-9922.2006.00353.x/pdf

This article provides a selective overview of theoretical issues and empirical findings relating to the question of age and second language acquisition (L2A). Both behavioral and brain-based data are discussed in the contexts of neurocognitive aging and cognitive neurofunction in the mature individual. The important message is on the outcome of second language acquisition among adults is demonstrably different in many respects from the outcome of first language acquisition among children.

Cristophe, A., Millotte, S., Bernal, S., & Lidz, J. (2008). Bootstrapping lexical and syntactic acquisition. Journal of Language and Speech. 51(1) , 61-74. Retrieved 11 October 2011, from
http://las.sagepub.com/content/51/1-2/61.full.pdf+html

The study focuses on how phrasal prosody and function words may interact during early language acquisition. Experimental results show that infants have access to intermediate prosodic phrases (phonological phrases) during the first year of life, and use these to constrain lexical segmentation. What might be innate, what needs to be acquired, and how this acquisition might take place are questions that are addressed with respect to several aspects.

Curtis, S., Fromkin, V., Krashen, S., Rigler, D., & Rigler, M. (1974). The linguistic development of Genie. Journal of Linguistic Society of America, 50(3) , 528-554. Retrieved 11 0ctober 2011, from http://ezproxy.um.edu.my:2057/stable/pdfplu/412222.pdf?acceptTC=true

This work talks about the linguistic development of Genie, an adolescent girl who experience a degree of social isolation when she was young. The case study discusses on the acquisition of a language regarding the notion of critical period called as The Critical Hypothesis (CPH). The concept does not pertain solely to language acquisition towards the girl when she was nearly fourteen years old and was already pubescent. It also conveys the message on the critical age for acquiring a language.

Huang, B., & Jun, S. (2011). The effect of age on the acquisition of second language prodosy. Journal of Language and Speech, 54(3) , 387- 414. Retrieved 12 October 2011, from http://ezproxy.um.edu.my:2066/ehost/pdfviewer/pdfviewer?sid=08a3de1c-7f2b-4c49-8c18 216dc8e6647d%40sessionmgr115&vid=1&hid=119

This study reports an exploratory analysis of the age of arrival effect on the production of second language prosody. Prosody features (stress, articulation rates and pitch) were focused. Three groups of Mandarin-speaking immigrants, 10 in each group with varying in the United States and ten native speakers of English as controls participated in the study. Researchers acknowledge that input works in powerful ways to influence learning.

Peperkamp, S. (2003). Phonological acquisition: recent attainments and new challenges. Journal of Language and Speech, 46(2-3) , 87- 113. Retrieved 12 October 2011, from http://las.sagepub.com/content/46/2-3/87.full.pdf+html

The study involves statistical learning mechanisms, early lexical development, and models of phonetic category perception. Infants’ phonological acquisition during the first 18 months of life has been studied within experimental psychology for some 30 years. It remains to be investigated experimentally if there is innate phonological knowledge and how the language-specific phonological grammar is acquired.

Prieto, P. (2006). The relevance of metrical information in early prosodic word acquisition: a comparison of Catalan and Spanish. Journal of Language and Speech, 49(2) , 231-258. Retrieved 13 October 2011, from http://las.sagepub.com/content/49/2/231.full.pdf+html

This study involves qualitative and quantitative data from seven Catalan-speaking children focuses on the development of Prosodic Word shapes in Catalan, a language which differs from both Spanish and English. One of the noteworthy differences between Catalan and Spanish is the rate of acquisition of weak initial syllables. The contributions to this special issue are introduced, and an attempt is made to bridge the gap between phonological theory and experimental psychology.

Syrika, A., Nicolidis, K., Edwards, J., & Beckman, M. (2011). Acquisition of initial /s/- stop and stop-/s/ sequences in Greek. Journal of Language and Speech, 54(3) , 361-386.Retrieved 13 October 2011, from http://ezproxy.um.edu.my:2066/ehost/pdfviewer/pdfviewer?sid=fca28587-093b-4fb1-9cc59d187e6ab295%40sessionmgr115&vid=1&hid=119

The participants for this study includes children and adults with their age ranges in a larger cross- linguistic study examining the effect of phoneme and phoneme sequence frequency on their acquisition in few languages. Phonological awareness is an important variable of speaking and reading and it is defined as phonological interference in items including foreign accent such as stress, rhythm, intonation and speech sounds from the first language influencing the second language.

18. MOHANAMBIKAY PANDIAN - October 14, 2011

Mohanambikay a/p Pandian
PGP110015

Annotated Bibliography

Fitzpatrick, T., & Izura, C. (2011). An exploratory study of response types, response times, and interlingual mediation. Studies in Second Language Acquisition, 33. Retrieved 1 October 2011, from http://ezproxy.um.edu.my:2726/action/displayJournal?jid=SLA.

This journal investigates word association response in first-language (L1) Spanish and second-language (L2) English by means of response latencies and types of associative response produced. Twenty-four native Spanish speakers (19 females and 5 males), who had started to learn English as a L2 at a mean age of 9 years old, took part in the study. Two word association tasks were used: one in Spanish (the participants’ L1) and one in English (the L2). Results indicate that responses are faster when a double association link is produced-that is, when the response is associated by form and meaning or meaning and collocation. L2 response time profiles broadly mirror those of the L1, although L2 times are generally slower.

Kretzschmer, M. J. (2011). The emphasis of formal grammar teaching in second language programs: The natural approach through children’s literature (Masters of Arts thesis, University of Wyoming, 2011). Dissertation Abstracts. Retrieved 8 October 2011, from http://ezproxy.um.edu.my:2110/pqdweb?did=2353103641&sid=5&Fmt=2&clientId=18803&RQT=309&VName=PQD

This thesis explores the changes that have taken place in regard to the teaching of formal grammar the Grammar-Translation Method to the Natural Approach. This study details the five hypotheses that make up the Natural Approach to second language acquisition and learning. Using the Natural Approach as a guide, grammar can be introduced effortlessly to students through children’s literature as its media. Fifteen children’s books have been identified and categorized to several of Krashen’s topic or situation guidelines. Each of the books has a specific grammar point that is studied naturally using what is called the PACE Model (Presentation of meaningful language, Attention, Co-Construct explanation, and Extension activity)

Kweon, S. O., & Bley-Vorman, R. (2011). Acquisition of the constraints on wanna contraction by advanced second language learners: Universal grammar and imperfect knowledge. Second Language Research, 27(2), 207-229. Retrieved 5 October 2011, from http://ezproxy.um.edu.my:2110/pqdweb?did=2305046701&sid=4&Fmt=2&clientId=18803&RQT=309&VName=PQD

Contraction of “want to” to “wanna” is subject to constraints that have been related to the operation of Universal Grammar. Contraction appears to be blocked when the trace of an extracted wh-word intervenes. Evidence for knowledge of these constraints by young English-speaking children has been taken to show the operation of Universal Grammar in early child language acquisition. This study investigates knowledge of these constraints in adults, both English native speakers and advanced Korean learners of English. The results of three experiments using elicited production, oral repair, and grammaticality judgments confirmed native speaker knowledge of the constraints. A second process of phonological elision may also operate to produce “wanna”. Learners also showed some differentiation of contexts, but much less clearly than native speakers. It has been speculated that non-natives might use rules of complement selection, rather than the constraints of Universal Grammar (UG) to control contraction.

Laufer, B., & Rozovski-Roitblat, B. (2011). Incidental vocabulary acquisition: The effects of task type, word occurrence and their combination. Language Teaching Research, 15(4), 391-412. Retrieved 11 October 2011, from http://ezproxy.um.edu.my:2110/pqdweb?did=2472411101&sid=4&Fmt=2&clientId=18803&RQT=309&VName=PQD

This study investigates how long-term retention of new words was affected by task type, number of word occurrences in the teaching materials and the combination of the two factors. The tasks were: reading a text with occasional Focus on Form when learners used dictionaries (T+F), or reading a text with Focus on Forms, i.e. word focused exercises (T+Fs). The words occurred 2 to 3, 4 to 5, and 6 to 7 times. Consequently, there were six conditions that reflected the 2 × 3’ task × occurrence’ combinations. Learners were exposed to 60 target words, 10 words in each condition during a 13-week course of study, and were subsequently tested on them by two unannounced tests: passive recall and passive recognition. An increase in word occurrence was found to have an effect on retention in T+Fs only. Starting with 4 occurrences, T+Fs fared better than T+F. Task type effect was superior to the effect of word occurrence in recall only (2 word exercises fared better than 6 to 7 occurrences in text). The value of word-focused practice was also confirmed by learners’ responses to an introspective questionnaire.

Leij, A. V. D., Bekebrede, J., & Kotterink, M. (2010).Acquiring reading and vocabulary in Dutch and English: the effect of concurrent instruction, 23 (3-4). Retrieved 6 October 2011, from
http://ezproxy.um.edu.my:2110/pqdweb?did=2371368491&sid=5&Fmt=2&clientId=18803&RQT=309&VName=PQD

To investigate the effect of concurrent instruction in Dutch and English on reading acquisition in both languages, 23 pupils were selected from a school with bilingual education and 23 from a school with education in Dutch only. The pupils had a Dutch majority language background and were comparable with regard to social-economic status (SES). Reading and vocabulary were measured twice within an interval of 1 year in Grade 2 and 3. The bilingual group performed better on most English and some of the Dutch tests. Controlling for general variables and related skills, instruction in English contributed significantly to the prediction of L2 vocabulary and orthographic awareness at the second measurement. As expected, word reading fluency was easier to acquire in Dutch with its relatively transparent orthography in comparison to English with its deep orthography, but the skills intercorrelated highly. With regard to cross-linguistic transfer, orthographic knowledge and reading comprehension in Dutch were positively influenced by bilingual instruction, but there was no indication of generalization to orthographic awareness or knowledge of a language in which no instruction had been given (German). The results of the present study support the assumption that concurrent instruction in Dutch and English has positive effects on the acquisition of L2 English and L1 Dutch.

Randy, L. (2010). Context and vocabulary acquisition: An eye movement investigation. (Masters of Arts thesis, University of South Carolina, 2010). Dissertation Abstracts. Retrieved 8 October 2011, from
http://ezproxy.um.edu.my:2110/pqdweb?did=2043546181&sid=3&Fmt=2&clientId=18803&RQT=309&VName=PQD

The study investigates how readers process different types of contextual information following novel words during the course of silent reading. The two types of contextual information were action context and categorical context. Two experiments were conducted, in which the context type was manipulated following novel or familiar target words to examine their impact on reading patterns. The reading session in the first experiment was followed by a recognition test, while the reading session in the second experiment was followed by a forced choice vocabulary test. Strong familiarity effects were consistently found for measures of initial processing and rereading across both experiments. Effects of context type were found in the second experiment. These effects may be related to different types of inferential processing for each context condition. Analyses of surprise post-test data for both experiments revealed no recognition differences across context conditions, but did reveal differences in eye movement patterns associated with recognized and unrecognized novel words. Finally, contextual information (Experiment 2) was found to be successfully encoded more often for items with inanimate targets than animate targets. Implications for how this may be connected to mechanisms underlying grounded cognition will be discussed.

Ryan, G. (2010). Specialized vocabulary acquisition through texts in the theology classroom (Doctoral dissertation, Biola University, 2010). Retrieved 12 October 2011, from http://ezproxy.um.edu.my:2110/pqdweb?did=2342145661&sid=4&Fmt=2&clientId=18803&RQT=309&VName=PQD

This research presents (a) a corpus study of a semester’s reading material for a graduate systematic theology course at a theological seminary in the United States, and (b) a case study with volunteer, graduate, first and second language (L1 and L2) students studying systematic theology. The corpus study examined the percentage, number, and frequency of occurrence of specialized vocabulary in theology textbooks in order to examine the extent to which these texts provide the lexical input necessary to aid in incidental learning of specialized vocabulary in the mainstream classroom over the course of a semester by L2 students. From a corpus of 256,238 word tokens, the study found that specialized words and fixed phrases made up 9.8% of the corpus. While the percentage of specialized words and phrases was not high, there was a large number (1,005) to meet in one semester and their frequency of occurrence was low. It was concluded, therefore, that this would make the incidental acquisition of such vocabulary difficult. Results showed that native English speakers were better able to make use of the lexical environments, and corroborated previous research that the greater the linguistic proficiency of students, the more able they appear to acquire words incidentally.

Salsbury, T., Crossley, S. A., & McNamara, D. S. (2011). Psycholinguistic word information in second language oral discourse. Second Language Research, 27(3). Retrieved 9 October 2011, from http://ezproxy.um.edu.my:2110/pqdweb?did=2364165811&sid=1&Fmt=2&clientId=18803&RQT=309&VName=PQD

This study explores productive vocabularies in the oral discourse of L2 English learners using psycholinguistics indices of word knowledge taken from the MRC database. The respondents of this study ranged in age from 18 to 29 years old and had all successfully completed high school in their country of origin. The device used to derive the data is interview. The results suggest that psycholinguistic word information, namely concreteness, imagability and meaningfulness play a role in what learners know about words and how they are able to use them.

Stringer, D., Burghardt, B., Seo, H. K., & Wang, Y. T. (2011). Straight on through to Universal Grammar: Spatial modifiers in second language acquisition. Second Language Research, 27(3), 289-311. Retrieved 11 October 2011, from 10.1177/0267658310384567

This article provides evidence of a flow of information seemingly in the opposite direction, from meaning to grammar, at the interface between lexical semantics and syntax. This study was conducted on participants who were drawn from six proficiency levels of an Intensive English Program at a large University in the Midwest of the USA. The study examines whether L2 learners of English are able to overcome the poverty of the stimulus and recruit the relevant functional categories despite their absence in the first language (L1).

Tekmen, E. A. F., & Daloğlu, A. (2006). An investigation of incidental vocabulary acquisition in relation to learner proficiency level and word frequency. Foreign Language Annals, 39(2). Retrieved 10 October 2011, from

This study observes the relationship between learners’ incidental vocabulary acquisition and their level of proficiency, and between acquisition and word frequency in a test. Participants were Turkish learners of English at three proficiency levels. The data for this study were collected through two instruments: Nation’s (1990) Vocabulary Levels Test and a vocabulary test based on the reading text used in the study. The study suggests that the best and the most efficient solution for vocabulary instruction is a combination of explicit and implicit techniques.

Tran, T. H. (2011). EFL teachers’ perceptions about vocabulary acquisition and instruction. (Doctoral dissertation, Alliant International University, San Diego, 2011) Dissertation Abstacts. Retrieved 2 October 2011, from http://ezproxy.um.edu.my:2110/pqdweb?did=2414555201&sid=4&Fmt=2&clientId=18803&RQT=309&VName=PQD

This study explores EFL teachers’ perceptions of vocabulary acquisition and instruction and to identify their use of vocabulary learning strategies. Three survey questionnaires were utilized to collect quantitative data and interviews were employed to obtain qualitative data to answer the six research questions. A total of 49 participants participated in the study, seven of whom were interviewed. The findings of this study reveal that the participants reported using or having used a large number of vocabulary learning strategies, among which guessing unknown words from context, monolingual dictionary use, and learning new words in an English sentence. Moreover the participants generally showed a strong consensus on three major points which are reading, guessing and technology can greatly help students to learn vocabulary. Four vocabulary teaching techniques that received the most popularity among the participants were (a) preteaching new words, (b) ensuring that students can pronounce the word and understand its meaning, (c) providing a native language equivalent of the word to students when they have difficulty comprehending the word in English, and (d) asking students to guess the meaning of the word prior to explaining them.

Yang, Y., & Lyster, R. (2010). Effects of form-focused practice and feedback on Chinese EFL learners’ acquisition of regular and irregular past tense forms. Studies in Second Language Acquisition, 32, 235-263. Retrieved 11 October 2011, from http://ezproxy.um.edu.my: 2110/pqdweb

Conducted in English-as-a-foreign-language (EFL) classrooms at the university level in China, this quasi-experimental study compared the effects of three different corrective feedback treatments on 72 Chinese learners’ use of regular and irregular English past tense. Three classes were randomly assigned to a prompt group, a recast group, or a control group and then participated in form-focused production. Yet, in spite of the greater saliency of prompts, surprisingly few participants, in response to items on the exit questionnaire, indicated that they remembered having their attention drawn specifically to grammar or past tense during the oral production activities, which suggests that prompts can be integrated into such classroom activities just as smoothly as recasts, but with greater effects.

19. Erin Balqis Qing - October 14, 2011

PBGS 6113
RESEARCH IN SECOND LANGUAGE ACQUISTION

ANNOTED BIBLIOGRAPHY

SUBJECT: VOCABULARY IN READING
NAME: BALQIS SHI QINGQING
MATIRC NO: PGP 110025
DATE OF SUBMISSION: 14/10/2011

Youngkyu Kim (2006). Effects of input elaboration on vocabulary acquisition through reading by Korean learners of English as a foreign language. Tesol Quarterly, 40(2), 341-373.

This article investigates whether (a) lexical elaboration (LE), typographical enhancement (TE), or a combination, and (b) explicit or implicit LE affect 297 Korean learners’ acquisition of English vocabulary. A posttest-only control group design was used in the study. The results were (a) LE alone did not aid form recognition of vocabulary, (b) explicit LE alone aided meaning recognition of vocabulary, (c) TE alone did not aid form and meaning recognition of vocabulary, (d) LE and TE combined did not aid form recognition of vocabulary, (e) both explicit and implicit LE aided meaning recognition of vocabulary, (f) explicit and implicit LE did not differ in their effect on form and meaning recognition of vocabulary, and (g) whether a text was further enhanced in addition to either explicit or implicit LE did not seem to affect the acquisition of the previously unknown words’ forms or meanings.

Stuart Webb & Eve Kagimoto (2009). The effects of vocabulary learning on collocation and meaning. Tesol Quarterly, 43(1), 55-77.

This study investigates the effects of receptive and productive vocabulary tasks on learning collocation and meaning. The participants in this study were 145 Japanese native speakers learning English as a foreign language in nine first-, second-, and third-year classes at two universities in Fukuoka, Japan. The findings indicate knowledge of collocation may be acquired at a rate similar to that of meaning, and that tasks which focus on collocation, as well as meaning, may be effective.

Article 3
Joe Barcroft (2009). Effects of synonym generation of incidental and intentional L2 vocabulary learning during reading. Tesol Quarterly, 43(1), 79-103.

This study investigates the effects of receptive and productive vocabulary tasks on learning collocation and meaning. The participants in the study were 114 Spanish-speaking university students learning L2 English at a large university in Mexico City. The findings indicate knowledge of collocation may be acquired at a rate similar to that of meaning, and that tasks which focus on collocation, as well as meaning, may be effective.

Article 4
Lawrence Jun Zhang & Suaini Bin Annual (2008). The role of vocabulary in reading comprehension: the case of secondary school students learning English in Singapore. RELC Journal, 39 (1), 51-76.

This article investigates the role of vocabulary in reading comprehension among secondary school students learning English in Singapore. Thirty-seven year-4 secondary students in a neighborhood school in Singapore participated in this study. The Vocabulary Levels Tests were used to measure students’ vocabulary knowledge in relation to the different measures intended to test their reading comprehension and summary abilities. Results suggest that students’ vocabulary knowledge at the 2,000-word and the 3,000-word levels was correlated to their reading comprehension.

Article 5
Yuko Hoshino (2010). The categorical facilitation effects on L2 vocabulary learning in a classroom setting. RELC Journal, 41 (3), 301-312.

This study investigated which of the five types of word lists (synonyms, antonyms, categorical, thematic, and arbitrary) facilitated L2 vocabulary learning in a classroom setting. A total of 119 university students, all of whom were Japanese EFL students, participated in this study. The participants were classified into four clusters according to their learning styles, and the study compared the relative effectiveness of the types of word lists on different types of learners. The results showed that the most effective type of word list did not vary according to student clusters: all of the learners memorized the words in the categorical list more effectively than those in the other lists. Hence the type of word list had a stronger effect on the efficacy of vocabulary learning than the individual learning style did.

Article 6
Diana Pulido (2007). The relationship between text comprehension and second language incidental vocabulary acquisition: A matter of topic familiarity? Language Learning, 57(1), 155-199.

The study reported in this article describes second language (L2) vocabulary learning outcomes associated with adult L2 reading comprehension processes, thus connecting L2 learning with the complex cognitive and linguistic processing involved in reading. Ninety-nine adult learners of Spanish as an L2 served as participants. They were recruited from three distinct university course levels. The results suggest that as learners become more efficient in engaging in the various processing activities required during L2 reading, they experience greater memory for linguistic elements encountered during reading, such as orthographic forms and semantic aspects of new lexical items.

Article 7
You Jin Kim (2008). The role of task-Induced involvement and learner proficiency in L2 vocabulary acquisition. Language Learning, 58(2), 285-325.

Hulstijin and Laufer (2001) proposed a motivational-cognitive construct of task-induced involvement to account for variation in effectiveness among different vocabulary learning tasks. Building upon their original research, this study consisted of two experiments investigating the involvement load hypothesis in vocabulary learning. The 64 participants were 34 matriculated undergraduates at a Midwestern university in the United States and 30 ESL students in two different IEPs. The results of Experiment 1 showed that a higher level of learner involvement during the task promoted more effective initial vocabulary learning and better retention of the new words. The findings of Experiment 2 indicated that when different tasks had the same involvement load, they resulted in similar amounts of initial vocabulary learning and retention of new words.

Article 8
Evagelia Apathanasiou (2009). An investigation of two ways of presenting vocabulary. ELT Journal, 63(4), 313-322.

This study examines which manner of L2 vocabulary presentation of more helpful for L2 learners. It was conducted in EFL classrooms with Greek EFL students. The subjects were 31 intermediate EFL children and 32 beginner EFL adults. The two different ways of organizing new vocabulary for presentation were tested. The article focuses on the main conclusion that semantically related clustering impedes L2 vocabulary learning at beginners’ level.

Article 9
Junko Yamashita (2007). The Relationship of Reading Attitudes between L1 and L2: An Investigation of Adult EFL Learners in Japan. Tesol Quarterly, 41(1), 81-105.

This study investigated the transfer of reading attitudes from L1 to L2, drawing on the linguistic threshold hypothesis. Participants were Japanese university-level EFL students. The study found that the students’ L1 and L2 reading attitudes were different. Multiple regression analyses identified significant contributions of L1 reading attitudes in explaining L2 attitudes. The contribution of L2 proficiency was also significant in many cases but very small. Moreover, no evidence was found that the contribution of L1 reading attitude increases at higher levels of L2 proficiency.

Article 10
Jabulani Sibanda (2010). The Nexus between direct reading instruction, reading theoretical perspectives, and pedagogical practices of University of Swaziland bachelor of education students. RELC Journal, 41(2), 149-164.

The study investigated the influence direct reading instruction had on university student teachers’ reading cognition and the influence their theoretical perspectives had on their pedagogical practices. The study was conducted on all the seven year 2 (2008) Bachelor of Education (primary students at the University of Swaziland). Questionnaire items, observations and follow-up interviews were used during the investigating process. The study’s findings point to a causal relationship between direct instruction and reading theoretical orientation (on account of the shifts in reading orientation in the post-reading course questionnaire responses), which does not always hold for reading theoretical perspectives and pedagogical practices (where prevailing environmental factors often compel teachers to implement reading perspectives different from those they theoretically subscribe to most).

Article 11
Wenyuh Shieh & Mark R. Freiermuth (2010). Using the DASH method to measure reading comprehension. Tesol Quarterly, 44(1), 110-128.

The duplicated answer sheets (DASH) method was designed with the purpose of investigating the influence of dictionary use on text comprehension using a timed-interval assessment. The DASH was given to five proficiency-leveled groups of EFL students at a university in Taiwan. The results indicate that dictionary use has little effect during the early stages of testing. However, during subsequent test intervals dictionary use seems to benefit learners’ text comprehension, regardless of proficiency level.

Article 12
John Macalister (2008). Implementing extensive reading in an EAP programme. ELT Journal, 62(3), 248-256.

This paper reports on the implementation of an extensive reading component in a pre-university study EAP programme. Questionnaire, interviews and observations were used to complete the research. Learners responded positively to the loss of teacher-centered class time and a not-EAP focus for part of each lesson. While the implementation of extensive reading will vary from setting to setting, this action research project shows that extensive reading can have a place in an EAP programme.

Article 13
Hossein Nassaji (2007). Schema theory and knowledge-based processes in second language reading comprehension: A need for alternative perspectives. Language Learning, 57(1), 79-113.

In this article, the author first reviews and critically analyzes the major assumptions underlying schema theory and the processes that it postulates underlie knowledge representation and comprehension. Then the author considers an alternative perspective, construction-integration model of discourse comprehension, and discuses how this perspective, when applied to L2 reading comprehension, offers a fundamentally different and more detailed account of the role of knowledge and knowledge-based processes that L2 researchers had previously tried to explain within schema-theoretic principles.

drjessie - October 15, 2011

Erin, fix this list: alphabetize it and submit using the APA format. Until revision is done, this will not be marked.

Erin Balqis Qing - October 20, 2011

PBGS 6113
RESEARCH IN SECOND LANGUAGE ACQUISTION

ANNOTED BIBLIOGRAPHY

SUBJECT: VOCABULARY IN READING
NAME: BALQIS SHI QINGQING
MATIRC NO: PGP 110025

Diana Pulido (2007). The relationship between text comprehension and second language incidental vocabulary acquisition: A matter of topic familiarity? Language Learning, 57(1), 155-199.

The study reported in this article describes second language (L2) vocabulary learning outcomes associated with adult L2 reading comprehension processes, thus connecting L2 learning with the complex cognitive and linguistic processing involved in reading. Ninety-nine adult learners of Spanish as an L2 served as participants. They were recruited from three distinct university course levels. The results suggest that as learners become more efficient in engaging in the various processing activities required during L2 reading, they experience greater memory for linguistic elements encountered during reading, such as orthographic forms and semantic aspects of new lexical items.

Evagelia Apathanasiou (2009). An investigation of two ways of presenting vocabulary. ELT Journal, 63(4), 313-322.

This study examines which manner of L2 vocabulary presentation of more helpful for L2 learners. It was conducted in EFL classrooms with Greek EFL students. The subjects were 31 intermediate EFL children and 32 beginner EFL adults. The two different ways of organizing new vocabulary for presentation were tested. The article focuses on the main conclusion that semantically related clustering impedes L2 vocabulary learning at beginners’ level.

Hossein Nassaji (2007). Schema theory and knowledge-based processes in second language reading comprehension: A need for alternative perspectives. Language Learning, 57(1), 79-113.

In this article, the author first reviews and critically analyzes the major assumptions underlying schema theory and the processes that it postulates underlie knowledge representation and comprehension. Then the author considers an alternative perspective, construction-integration model of discourse comprehension, and discuses how this perspective, when applied to L2 reading comprehension, offers a fundamentally different and more detailed account of the role of knowledge and knowledge-based processes that L2 researchers had previously tried to explain within schema-theoretic principles.

Jabulani Sibanda (2010). The Nexus between direct reading instruction, reading theoretical perspectives, and pedagogical practices of University of Swaziland bachelor of education students. RELC Journal, 41(2), 149-164.

The study investigated the influence direct reading instruction had on university student teachers’ reading cognition and the influence their theoretical perspectives had on their pedagogical practices. The study was conducted on all the seven year 2 (2008) Bachelor of Education (primary students at the University of Swaziland). Questionnaire items, observations and follow-up interviews were used during the investigating process. The study’s findings point to a causal relationship between direct instruction and reading theoretical orientation (on account of the shifts in reading orientation in the post-reading course questionnaire responses), which does not always hold for reading theoretical perspectives and pedagogical practices (where prevailing environmental factors often compel teachers to implement reading perspectives different from those they theoretically subscribe to most).

Joe Barcroft (2009). Effects of synonym generation of incidental and intentional L2 vocabulary learning during reading. Tesol Quarterly, 43(1), 79-103.

This study investigates the effects of receptive and productive vocabulary tasks on learning collocation and meaning. The participants in the study were 114 Spanish-speaking university students learning L2 English at a large university in Mexico City. The findings indicate knowledge of collocation may be acquired at a rate similar to that of meaning, and that tasks which focus on collocation, as well as meaning, may be effective.

John Macalister (2008). Implementing extensive reading in an EAP programme. ELT Journal, 62(3), 248-256.

This paper reports on the implementation of an extensive reading component in a pre-university study EAP programme. Questionnaire, interviews and observations were used to complete the research. Learners responded positively to the loss of teacher-centered class time and a not-EAP focus for part of each lesson. While the implementation of extensive reading will vary from setting to setting, this action research project shows that extensive reading can have a place in an EAP programme.

Junko Yamashita (2007). The Relationship of Reading Attitudes between L1 and L2: An Investigation of Adult EFL Learners in Japan. Tesol Quarterly, 41(1), 81-105.

This study investigated the transfer of reading attitudes from L1 to L2, drawing on the linguistic threshold hypothesis. Participants were Japanese university-level EFL students. The study found that the students’ L1 and L2 reading attitudes were different. Multiple regression analyses identified significant contributions of L1 reading attitudes in explaining L2 attitudes. The contribution of L2 proficiency was also significant in many cases but very small. Moreover, no evidence was found that the contribution of L1 reading attitude increases at higher levels of L2 proficiency.

Lawrence Jun Zhang & Suaini Bin Annual (2008). The role of vocabulary in reading comprehension: the case of secondary school students learning English in Singapore. RELC Journal, 39 (1), 51-76.

This article investigates the role of vocabulary in reading comprehension among secondary school students learning English in Singapore. Thirty-seven year-4 secondary students in a neighborhood school in Singapore participated in this study. The Vocabulary Levels Tests were used to measure students’ vocabulary knowledge in relation to the different measures intended to test their reading comprehension and summary abilities. Results suggest that students’ vocabulary knowledge at the 2,000-word and the 3,000-word levels was correlated to their reading comprehension.

Stuart Webb & Eve Kagimoto (2009). The effects of vocabulary learning on collocation and meaning. Tesol Quarterly, 43(1), 55-77.

This study investigates the effects of receptive and productive vocabulary tasks on learning collocation and meaning. The participants in this study were 145 Japanese native speakers learning English as a foreign language in nine first-, second-, and third-year classes at two universities in Fukuoka, Japan. The findings indicate knowledge of collocation may be acquired at a rate similar to that of meaning, and that tasks which focus on collocation, as well as meaning, may be effective.

Wenyuh Shieh & Mark R. Freiermuth (2010). Using the DASH method to measure reading comprehension. Tesol Quarterly, 44(1), 110-128.

The duplicated answer sheets (DASH) method was designed with the purpose of investigating the influence of dictionary use on text comprehension using a timed-interval assessment. The DASH was given to five proficiency-leveled groups of EFL students at a university in Taiwan. The results indicate that dictionary use has little effect during the early stages of testing. However, during subsequent test intervals dictionary use seems to benefit learners’ text comprehension, regardless of proficiency level.

You Jin Kim (2008). The role of task-Induced involvement and learner proficiency in L2 vocabulary acquisition. Language Learning, 58(2), 285-325.

Hulstijin and Laufer (2001) proposed a motivational-cognitive construct of task-induced involvement to account for variation in effectiveness among different vocabulary learning tasks. Building upon their original research, this study consisted of two experiments investigating the involvement load hypothesis in vocabulary learning. The 64 participants were 34 matriculated undergraduates at a Midwestern university in the United States and 30 ESL students in two different IEPs. The results of Experiment 1 showed that a higher level of learner involvement during the task promoted more effective initial vocabulary learning and better retention of the new words. The findings of Experiment 2 indicated that when different tasks had the same involvement load, they resulted in similar amounts of initial vocabulary learning and retention of new words.

Youngkyu Kim (2006). Effects of input elaboration on vocabulary acquisition through reading by Korean learners of English as a foreign language. Tesol Quarterly, 40(2), 341-373.

This article investigates whether (a) lexical elaboration (LE), typographical enhancement (TE), or a combination, and (b) explicit or implicit LE affect 297 Korean learners’ acquisition of English vocabulary. A posttest-only control group design was used in the study. The results were (a) LE alone did not aid form recognition of vocabulary, (b) explicit LE alone aided meaning recognition of vocabulary, (c) TE alone did not aid form and meaning recognition of vocabulary, (d) LE and TE combined did not aid form recognition of vocabulary, (e) both explicit and implicit LE aided meaning recognition of vocabulary, (f) explicit and implicit LE did not differ in their effect on form and meaning recognition of vocabulary, and (g) whether a text was further enhanced in addition to either explicit or implicit LE did not seem to affect the acquisition of the previously unknown words’ forms or meanings.

Yuko Hoshino (2010). The categorical facilitation effects on L2 vocabulary learning in a classroom setting. RELC Journal, 41 (3), 301-312.

This study investigated which of the five types of word lists (synonyms, antonyms, categorical, thematic, and arbitrary) facilitated L2 vocabulary learning in a classroom setting. A total of 119 university students, all of whom were Japanese EFL students, participated in this study. The participants were classified into four clusters according to their learning styles, and the study compared the relative effectiveness of the types of word lists on different types of learners. The results showed that the most effective type of word list did not vary according to student clusters: all of the learners memorized the words in the categorical list more effectively than those in the other lists. Hence the type of word list had a stronger effect on the efficacy of vocabulary learning than the individual learning style did.

drjessie - October 20, 2011

Erin, please review APA format for bibliography. Something is wrong with your revised posting. It can be useful to see the other postings in this section for reference.

20. PREMALATHA P.CHELLADORAI - October 14, 2011

Name: Premalatha P.Chelladorai
Matric No. : PGP110028

Annotated Bibliography

Alireza Jamshidnejal. (2011). Developing accuracy by using oral communication strategies in EFL Interactions. Journal of Language Teaching and Research, 2(3), 530-536, No.3,pp.530-536, May 2011@2011 Academy Publisher.doi:10.4304/jltr.2.3.530-536. Retrieved September 30, 2011, from http://ojs.academypublisher.com/index.php/jltr/article/view/0203530536/2951

This paper which adopts a qualitative research approach explores how a group of language learners develop the accuracy level of their target language in oral communication, particularly when they encounter a problem. The participants’ group discussions were audio recorded and transcribed and analyzed based on Dornyei and Scott’s (1997,pp.188-194) inventory of Strategic Language.

Christina.L, & Isabelli-Garcia. (2007). Development of oral communication skills abroad. Retrieved September 30, 2011 from http://www.frontiersjournal.com/issues/vol9/vol9-07_isabelligarcia.pdf

This study examines the impact of a semester study abroad experience in Argentina on the Second Language Acquisition of the American University Spanish Learners. The data for this study were derived from 2 sources that is a five informal interviews in the target language and a stimulated oral-proficiency interview (SOPI). The study showed an increase in the mean number of pauses and decrease in the number of times struggled.

Cotton, (2011) Classroom Questioning. Retrieved October 2, 2022, from http://www.learner.org/workshop/social studies/pdf/session6/6.classroomquestioning.pdf

This article is about questioning techniques used in classrooms. The review focuses on the relationship between teachers classroom questioning behaviours and a variety of student outcomes, including achievement, retention and the level of student participation.

Kim,H.S.(2003). The types of speaking assessment tasks used by Korean junior secondary school english teachers. Asian EFL Journal: L2 Language Learning Assessment in the Korean Classroom. Retrieved September 25, 2011, from http://www.asian-efl-journal.com/dec03 gl.pdf

This study is aimed to identify the types of speaking assessment tasks used by Korean Junior Secondary School Teachers and the ways in which those assessments were administered and to investigate Korean Teachers’ perception of the practical constrains in Korean EFL classroom which affect assessment of speaking. Using a qualitative approach, it is found hat all participants expressed frustration at he speaking assessment tasks in use and the ways they conducted assessments of students’ competence in their classroom.

Lam, W.Y.K.(2006). Gauging the effects of ESL oral communication strategy teaching: A multi method approach. Electronic Journal of Foreign of Language Teaching 2000, 3(2), 142-157 @ Centre of Language Studies, National University of Singapore. Retrieved September 30, 2011, from
http://e-flt.nus.edu.sg/v3n22006/lam.htm

This article presents the findings of an interventionist study designed to examine the effects of Oral Communication Strategy Teaching (OCST) on learners’ performance and on strategy use. On he basis of the theories of on-line speech processing and the problem –solving mechanisms in L2 speech (Bygate, 2005; Kormos, 2006; Levelt, 1989), eight strategies that might enable learners to overcome potential communication problems at different stages of speech production for teaching were proposed in this study.

Muhammad Tanveer. (2007). A dissertation submitted in fulfillment of the requirement of the (Degree of Master of Education in English Language Teaching Pathway (M. Ed. ELT Pathway, Educational Studies Faculty of Education, University of Glasgow). Retrieved October 2, 2011, from http://www.asian-efl-journal.com/thesis M Tanveer.pdf

This dissertation is on the feelings of anxiety, apprehension and nervousness commonly expressed by second / foreign language learners in learning to speak a second or foreign language. This study has attempted to investigate the factors that language anxiety can possibly stem from, both within the classroom environment and out of classroom in the wider social context and has recommended a variety of strategies to cope with it, using the qualitative method.
Murali. M 18.(2007). Teaching English as a Second Language in India – A Review. Retrieved October 2, 2011, from
http://mjal.org?Journal/teaching.english

This review discusses the factors affecting teaching and learning English as a Second Language based on a discrete point approach which involve the evaluation of each of the domains of structure and each of the skills of interest.

Nation, P. (2003). The role of the first language in foreign language learning. Asian EFL Journal 5(2). Retrieved September 25, 2011, from http://www.asian-efl-journal.com/june 2003 PN.php

Article 2 shows how the first language has a small but important role to play in communicating meaning and content of a second language across four strands of course that is meaning focused input – learning through listening and reading, meaning focused output – learning through speaking and writing, language focused learning – learning through deliberate attention to language features and fluency development – learning through working with known material across the four skills at a higher than usual level of performance.

Negro, N.P. (2011). The importance of oral Spanish teaching to multilingual students. A Case Study of USIU. Journal of Language Technology and Entrepreneurship in Africa, Vol.3. No.1. 2011. Retrieved October 2, 2011, from http://www.ajol.info/index.php/jolte/atile/View File/66586/54309

This paper explores the important aspects of Spanish, both spoken and written to multilingual students, with specific reference to United States International University (USIU), a private institution located in Nairobi, Kenya. It is summarized that dialogues, interaction and the interventions of a dynamic lecturer are crucial to the god development of oral skills.

Shamala, P. (2009). Language Transfer as a Communication Strategy and Language Learning Strategy in a Malaysian ESL Classroom. Asian EFL Journal. 11(1). Retrieved October 2, 2011, from
http://www.asian-efl-journal.com/march09sp.php

This paper reports on the use of language transfer as a type of communication strategy on language learning strategy drawing on a variety of oral interaction activities from a Malaysia classroom for English as a Second Language. The study supports language transfer as a useful tool for effective and successful L2 communication with the possible added advantage of a subsidiary effect with regard to second language learning.

Sharp, A. Ph.D (2004). Language learning and awareness of personality type in Chinese settings. Retrieved October 2, 2011 from http://www.asian-efl-journal.com/Article_1_June_as_2004.pdf

This article gives awareness and successful instruction to teachers the need to learn, identify and understand their student’s individual difference which is assessed with an instrument known as The Myers Briggs Type Indicator (MBTI) (Briggs.Myers;1998)in a Chinese settings. Four bi-polar scales are used: Extraversion – Introversion, Sensing – Intuition, Thinking – Feeling, and Judging – Perceiving ,(ISFJ, ISTJ, INFP, ENFP) and it is found that ISFJ is the most used categories.

Starke, D.(2011). Proofessional Development Module on Active Learning. Retrieved October 2, 2011, from http://www.texascollaborative.org/activelearning.htm#section1

This research has demonstrated that students learn more if they are actively engaged with the material they are studying.

Zainal Abidin Sayadi. (2007). An investigation into first year engineering students’ oral classroom participation. (Published master’s thesis, University Teknlogi Malaysia 2007.) Retrieved September 30, 2011, from http://eprints.utm.my/6469/1/zainalabidinmp051081do7ttt.pdf

This case study was conducted using the qualitative methods and a survey to see how the use of English as the medium of instructions has affected the students’ oral participation in Creativity and Innovation and Effective Communication classes. The findings proved hat he respondents well accepted the teaching and learning instructions and showed that the classes helped them to be more confident in speaking the language.

21. siti afsa bt abd ghani - October 14, 2011

PGBS 6113
1ST ASSIGNMENT (ANNOTATED BIBLIOGRAPHY)
SITI AFSA BT.ABD GHANI/PGP 110019

DeKeyser, R. M. (2005). What makes learning second language grammar difficult? A review of issues. Language Learning. 55(S1), 1-25.

This review by Robert M. De Keyser addresses several issues pertaining on what makes learning second language grammar difficult. He stated three main problems that hinder the mastery of second language grammar. The problems are problems of meaning, problems of form and problems of form-meaning mapping. He also added individual learners trait (i.e motivation, aptitude) and contextual aspects (i.e morphology, syntax) also acts as the contributing factor on second language grammar learning.

Elston-Gutler, K. E., & Williams, J. N. (2008). First language polysemy affects second language meaning interpretation; evidence for activation of first language concepts during second language reading. Second Language Research, 24(2), 167-187

This study examines the correlation between the lexicalization factor of L1 (i.e polysemy or also known as double meaning of a word) towards second language meaning interpretation. Participants consisted of 52 participants, 32 German learners who are advanced speakers of English and 20 English natives with little or no knowledge of German. The participants were given sentences in which they have to indicate whether the completion of the sentences is acceptable. The research findings stated that the German learners with advanced English made more errors despite their high proficiency level, as they automatically rely on their L1 lexicalization concepts.

Hakansson, G., & Norrby, C. (2010). Environmental influence on language acquisition: Comparing second and foreign language acquisition of Swedish. Language Learning, 60(3), 628-650.

This longitudinal study by Gisela Hakansson and Catrin Norrby examines the influence of the learning environment on the second language acquisition of Swedish; the study is done on the notion that there is a lack of attention on psycholinguistics aspects such as language exposure. This study comprises of two groups, one group of L2 learners in Sweden learning Swedish and one group of FL learners of Swedish in Australia. Both of the groups are intermediate Swedish learner. The only difference between the two groups is in term of the learning environment. Two types of test were presented to the two groups; the tests are pragmatic analysis test (gap filling test) and lexical analysis tests (word association test). The result of the findings stated that the two groups attained the same level in grammar but the L2 score higher in pragmatic and lexical.

Koda, K. (2007). Reading and language learning: Cross linguistic constraints on second language reading development. Language Learning, 57(S1), 1-44.

This insightful study by Keiko Koda focuses on of the intertwined of dual language linguistics aspects on second language reading development. Keiko reviews of past studies are inclusive of the correlative aspects of language transfer, experience and phonological awareness of L1 towards L2 reading development. This study sums up that even though L1 literacy experience has a lasting impact on L2 reading development, but proficiency matched L2 learners are similarly affected by L2 properties. Keiko also added that in all of studies, L2 variables were found to have a stronger impact overriding the variance attributable to L1 experience, and L2 print input is the dominant force in shaping reading sub skills in target language.

Larsen-Freeman, D. (2009). Adjusting expectations:The study of complexity, accuracy, and fluency in second language acquisition. Applied Linguistics, 30(40), 579-589.

This article discusses on the theory aspect of complexity, accuracy, and fluency or its abbreviation ‘CAF’ in second language acquisition, and method to measure ‘CAF’. There is a visible pattern of paradigm shift in terms of studies done revolving ‘CAF’ area. The previous studies focus more on the aspects of accuracy, in comparison to the current studies that focuses on the two other aspects of CAF, complexity and fluency.

Littlemore, J., Koester, A., Barnden, J., & Chen, P. T. (2011). Difficulties in metaphor comprehension faced by International students whose first language is not English. Applied Linguistics, 32(4), 408-429.

This article recounts on a study on 20 non native speaker international students whose first language is not English that attends British university undergraduates lectures. Previous study proposes that international students often experience difficulties understanding metaphor used in university lectures. The data were collected based on four post-lecture students’ activities. The result of the findings summarizes that students still face difficulties in metaphor comprehension despites the lexically familiar aspect of the items.

Mackey, A., & Sachs, R. (2011). Older learners in SLA research: A first look at working memory, feedback and L2 development. Language Learning, 1-37.

This study investigates the correlation between the age factors with L2 proficiency level. A small scale study comprises of nine older adult learners of English, aged from 65 to 89 years old, with Spanish as their L1. The learners were given a pre test and treatments with native speaker interlocutors. A delayed post test took place the following week, followed by a final delayed post test four weeks later. The results of the findings showed that there is no significant generalizations can be made, due to the fact that the research is small scale in manner, but the writers do stated that there are differences between young learners and older learners.

Nan, J., Novokshanova, E., & Masuda, K. (2011). Morphological congruency and the acquisition of L2 morphemes. Language Learning, 61(3), 940-967.

This study investigates the morphological congruency towards the acquisition of L2 morphemes. This study comprises of 76 participants in which, 24 Russian ESL speakers, 26 Japanese ESL speakers and 26 native speakers of English. All of the participants from the non native speakers groups reside in the United Stated for a minimum period of four years. The test material is inclusive of sentences specially constructed to examine participants’ sensitivity to plural markers and verb subcategories. The result of the finding concluded that Russian ESL learners are sensitive to both plural and verb sub categorization errors, in comparison to Japanese ESL learners that lacks in plural errors sensitivity.

Pichette, F., DeSerres, L., & Lafontainne, M. (2011). Sentence reading and writing for second language vocabulary acquisition. Applied Linguistics, 1-18.

This case study explores the probing question on whether in which individual activity, reading or writing is more likely to promote the retention of a new word by L2 learners. The participants of this case study comprises of 203 French speaking intermediate and advanced English as Second Language (ESL) learners of Quebec University, Canada. The participants aged from 18-53 years old. They were tested on eight concrete and eight abstract words, in two manner, reading and writing. The findings of the study summarize that writing a text may lead to higher recall rate only if ample time provided.

Wolter, B., & Gyllstad, H. (2011). Collocational links in the L2 mental lexicon and the influence on L1 intralexical knowledge. Applied Linguistics, 32(4), 430-449.

This study assesses the influence of L1 intralexical knowledge or inner lexical knowledge towards the formation of L2 intralexical collocations. The potential influence of L1 knowledge on L2 collocations at a psychological level is studied in an in depth manner. This study comprises of 68 participants, 31 of whom are English language learners with Swedish language (NNS) as the basis of their L1, and another 37 participants are native speaker of English (NS).The participants will be tested with ‘The lexical decision task’ test that comprises of a set of questionnaires that L1-L2 collocate, L2 only questions and unrelated questions. The findings of this study stated that when a L2 word is activated, it stimulates not the L2 collocates but the L1 translation equivalent. Hence, the L1 continues to be active even when performing tasks entirely in L2.

22. Princess Lina - October 14, 2011

NORAZLINA BINTI RAFI AHMAD
(PGP110020)

Research Topic: The Factors Contributing Towards The Lack Of Students Interest In Using English Language To Speak Among The Malay Primary School students age 10 to12 years old at SK Bukit Sentosa.

Annotated Bibliography

Anyadubalu, C.C. (2010). Self-efficacy, anxiety, and performance in the English language among middle-school students in English language program in Satri Si Suriyothai School, Bangkok. International Journal of Human and Social Science, 5 (3), 1-6. Retrieved 6 October 2011, from http://www.waset.org/journals/ijhss/v5/v5-3-29.pdf

The research is on students’ view of self-efficacy and anxiety in acquiring English language among the middle school students. The method used to conduct the research is survey questionnaire. The research focuses on students from age group 12 o 14 years old. The questionnaire was in two languages, English and Thai. The results proved that English language anxiety and self-efficacy, both are major predictors of English language performance among students.

Bress, P. (2006). Speaking Skills: What are they and how can we teach them? Modern English Teacher, 15(4), 44-46.

The article focuses on students who are non-native speakers who need two important skills which are speaking and listening when they learn the English language. The article focuses on the non-fluent speakers. Five important key elements have been outline in order to help the non-fluent speakers to improve in their speaking skills. The findings are just create the right conditions to improve students’ fluency.

Fook, C.Y., Gurnam Kaur Sidhu, Norhamimah Rani. & Norazah Abdul Aziz. (2011). Analyzing factors associated with students’ oral test performance. The International Journal of Educational and Psychological Assessment, 9 (1), 1-21.Retrieved 7 October 2011, from http://tijepa.books.officelive.com/Documents/A3_V9.1_TIJEPA.pdf

The research is about the association between students’ performance in School-based Oral English Test and their anxiety level, attitudes and observations towards language learning and their learning atmosphere. The study focuses on form 4 students from a boarding school, Terengganu. The methods used were questionnaire and semi-structured interviews. The finding shows that anxiety did exist in the language learning and the impact of students’ attitudes also contributes towards their own learning development.

Hu, Y. & Fell-Eisenkraft, S. (2003). Immigrant Chinese students’ use of silence in the language arts classroom: Perceptions, reflections, and actions. Teaching & Learning, Spring, 17 (2), 55-65. Retrieved 6 October 2011, from http://www.und.nodak.edu/dept/ehd/journal/spring2003/hu.pdf

This article discusses about the insights of some immigrant Chinese students on their own silence in the language arts in the classroom. The method used is an informal survey conducted through a focus group meeting. Their ages are between third and seventh grade students. The findings from the survey, shows that silence shown by the students in the classroom is caused by shyness, fear of not havin answering correctly, unfamiliarity with talking to learn and finally lack of having confidence to speak English language.

Liu J. (2009). Teacher questioning strategies. Modern English Teacher, 18 (2), 60-63

The study investigates the effectiveness of teacher questioning in English teaching. The sample of this study was taken from a classroom recording for the author’s research “Teacher Classroom Discourse” in 2007. A few strategies has been proposed in order for the students to answer better instead of being quite. There are the types of questioning technique to ask, who to ask in order to be fair and the wait-time during questioning session. This article is beneficial for teachers as if the questioning techniques are well design, it can probably help the teacher to create a better teaching and learning atmosphere in the classroom.

Nor Hashimah Jalaluddin. (2008). The mastery of English language among lower secondary school students in Malaysia: A linguistic analysis. European Journal of Social Sciences, 7 (2), 1-14. Retrieved 8 October 2011, from http://www.eurojournals.com/ejss_7_2_08.pdf

The research is about students who still not able to acquire or even comprehend the language even after eleven years of learning the language at primary and secondary school. A study has been conducted on 315 students Form Two students from urban, sub-urban and rural schools. The method used in this research is a Cloze Test. The results shows that the morphological and syntactical differences between the Malay language and English has been one of the major factors in students’ inability to successfully acquire the English language.

Oluwole, D. A. (2008). The impact of mother tongue on students’ achievement in English language in Junior Secondary Certificate Examination in Western Nigeria. Journal Social Science, 17 (1), 41-49. Retrieved 8 October 2011, from http://www.krepublishers.com/02-Journals/JSS/JSS-17-0-000-000-2008-Web/JSS-17-1-001-08-Abst-Text/JSS-17-1-041-08-590-Oluwole-D-A/JSS-17-1-041-08-590-Oluwole-D-A-Tt.pdf

The research is conducted to investigate if mother tongue is solely the cause of the students not performing well in their English language in the Junior School certificate Examination. The research focuses on 100 male and female students drawn from various government schools. The method used is a survey questionnaire. The findings reveal that not only mother tongue but there are also other factors that influences the students poor performance in English language in the Junior School Certificate Examination.

Tong, J. (2010). Some observations of students’ reticent and participatory behaviour in Hong Kong English classroom. Electronic Journal of Foreign Language Teaching. 7 (2), 239-254. Retrieved 6 October 2011, from
http://e-flt.nus.edu.sg/v7n22010/tong.htm

The research is about investigating oral participation behavior among the junior secondary students in the classroom of English in Hong Kong. They were 181 students participated in the research and their ages were between 12 to 15 years old. The methods used were video recording, opportunistic conversations and semi-structured interviews. The result shows that there are times where Hong Kong students are quiet and passive but at the same time they tend to participate orally as well.

Tsiplakides, I.& Keramida, A. (2009) Helping students overcome foreign language speaking anxiety in the English classroom: Theoretical issues and practical recommendations. International Education Studies, 2 (4), 1-6. Retrieved 4 October 2011, from http://ccsenet.org/journal/index.php/ies/article/viewFile/3887/3547

The article tells us about how foreign language speaking anxiety is a common situation in Greece when teaching the English language as a foreign language in the classroom where the teachers find students unwillingness to participate during class interaction session. This article focuses on students with anxiety problem to speak English. The author is using a Qualitative research method to identify and find out the characteristics of anxious students and also by implementing classroom interventions to reduce foreign language anxiety among students.

Walkinshaw, I. (2006). Get negative, positively: Learning and rehearsing negative speech acts in class. Modern English Teacher, 15(4), 34-38.

This article is about exploring the challengers faced by the learners whom are not from an English speaking environment in the classroom. The article focuses mainly to learners who are not from an English speaking background and why they hesitate to speak the language. The article has proposed a few strategy to help learners to break the silence and to speak out in spite of the negative speech act during classroom teaching and learning session.

Wu, Y. (2008). Language learning strategies used by students at different proficiency levels. Asian EFL Journal, 10 (4) Retrieved 10 October 2011, from http://www.asian-efl-journal.com/December_08_ylw.php

The research is about to probe the difference of language learning strategy use between higher and lower English proficiency level among the students. The subjects of this study are students from the National Chin-Yi University of Technology and were divided according to their proficiency level. The methods used were an English Proficiency Test and Strategy Inventory for language learning questionnaire. The findings conclude that higher proficiency students use language learning strategies more often than lower proficiency students.

Zhao,N. (2007). A study of high school students’ English learning anxiety. Asian EFL Journal, 9 (3), 22-34.Retrieved 4 October 2011, from http://www.asian-efl-journal.com/September_2007_EBook_editions.pdf

The research is conducted to explore the anxiety of learning English language among Chinese high school students in the classroom. In a quantitative survey conducted by a lecturer from Shandong University of Technology, on 115 students, average age 16, it is found out that the male students indeed had higher anxiety than female students in learning the English language. The methods used throughout this research were questionnaire and test. The findings show that the results indeed indicated that students do have a very high anxiety in learning the English language especially during test.

23. Pravendran Muthu PGP110023 - October 14, 2011

NAME : PRAVENDRAN A/L MUTHU
IC. NUMBER : 871022-14-5707
MATRIC . NO : PGP110023

Annotated Bibliography

Anna Ching-Shyang Chang(2007).The impact of vocabulary preparation on L2 listening comprehension, confidence and strategy use,35(4). Retrieved 9 October 2011 from
http://ezproxy.um.edu.my:2095/science?_S0346251X07000632.main.pdf

A total of 117 Taiwanese college students, aging from 18 to 24, took part in the study on the effects of vocabulary preparation prior to a listening comprehension test on L2 learners’ vocabulary performance, listening comprehension, confidence levels and strategy use. The participants were given three different lengths of preparation time to study new vocabulary that would be heard in a listening text which involves a vocabulary test, a listening comprehension test, and a questionnaire to elicit their confidence levels and strategy use. A semi-structured interview was conducted immediately after the test and result shows that allowing students to study vocabulary before a test could improve their vocabulary knowledge and confidence but not their listening comprehension.

Anthony Bruton(2007). Vocabulary learning from dictionary reference in collaborative EFL translational writing, 35(3)
Retrieved 9 October 2011 from
http://ezproxy.um.edu.my:2095/science/S0346251X07000450-main.pdf

This study was conducted in the FL English class of a typical Spanish secondary school where students are required to translate a short L1 Spanish text into FL English orally as a class, with accompanying dictionary glosses, before writing it down individually. A week later, the students were asked to translate the same text as a delayed test, without any support and on the delayed translation test, the results shows the students recalled an average of 5.4 of the words looked up.

Gholam Reza Zarei, Saeed Khazaie (2011). L2 vocabulary learning through multimodal representations, Social and Behavioral Sciences, Volume 15. Retrieved 9 October 2011 from
http://ezproxy.um.edu.my:2095/science/S1877042811002837-main.pdf

The survey is conducted on 158 participants from EFL classes in an Iranian English language institute to discover how Iranian learners of the English language learn L2 vocabulary through laptop based delivery of multimodal items. Learners were placed into four different short term memory (STM) ability groups, using Visual and Verbal Short Term Memory Test and they were evaluated on their recognition and recall of vocabulary items. . The results of the study suggest considering learners’ cognitive styles in teaching vocabulary.

Kiyomi Chujo, Masao Utiyama (2006). Selecting level-specific specialized vocabulary using statistical measures, System,34(2) Pages 255-269. Retrieved 10 October 2011 from
http://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S0346251X06000339

An automated tool to identify technical vocabulary applicable to learners at various levels of nine statistical measures were applied to the 7.3-million-word ‘commerce and finance’ component of the British National Corpus. The resulting word lists showed that each statistical measure extracted a different level of specialized vocabulary as measured by word length, vocabulary level, US native speaker grade level, and Japanese school textbook vocabulary coverage, and that these measures produced level-specific words. We conclude that these statistical measures are effective tools for identifying multi-level specialized vocabulary for pedagogical purposes.

Martyn K. Clark, Saori Ishida (2005) Vocabulary knowledge differences between placed and promoted EAP students. 4(3)
Retrieved 9 October 2011 from
http://ezproxy.um.edu.my:2095/science/S1475158504000712-main.pdf

This study investigated differences in vocabulary knowledge as a potential explanation for perceived differences between placed and promoted students in a university EAP reading course. Students in an advanced reading course were tested on their vocabulary knowledge using the Vocabulary Levels . Analysis of the data shows that students placed directly into the advanced reading course upon entry to the university have statistically significantly greater vocabulary knowledge than students promoted into the course after one semester of study in the EAP program.

Michael Lessard-Clouston (2010). Theology lectures as lexical environments: A case study of technical vocabulary use, Journal of English for Academic Purposes, 9(4). Retrieved 10 October 2011 from
http://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S1475158510000548

This is a descriptive case study on the use of technical vocabulary in the lectures of a first-year graduate theology course in Canada. It first contextualizes this research by noting four kinds of English vocabulary and the study of classrooms as lexical environments. Next it outlines the study’s methodology, including the observation of 23 classes over one semester, the transcription of 34 hours of audio taped lectures, and the use of computer programs VocabProfile and MonoConc Pro to analyze the files of the lecture transcripts. Quantitative results are presented on the frequency of each of four types of vocabulary, and sample transcript, handout, and whiteboard extracts offer examples and a qualitative description of the use of specialized theological vocabulary within the lectures observed

Montserrat Comesaña , Manuel Perea , Ana Piñeiro ,Isabel Fraga (2008). Vocabulary teaching strategies and conceptual representations of words in L2 in children: Evidence with novice learners,104(1) Pages 22-33. Retrieved 10 October 2011 from http://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S0022096508001616

In a survey conducted by a group of researcher among fifty-seven sixth grade Basque–Spanish bilinguals of ages 10 to 11 to study, in a child population, whether the creation of conceptual representations for L2 words is possible, even after only one session of learning of the L2 vocabulary. The experiment was carried by examining the efficacy of two different L2 learning methods: L2–L1 association learning vs. L2-picture association learning. A translation recognition task was employed to test whether there was a difference between a semantically related pair and an unrelated pair across conditions (i.e., a semantic interference effect). Results showed a significant semantic interference effect and a conceptual effect in children after just one vocabulary learning session. Importantly, the L2-picture method produced a greater semantic interference effect than the L2–L1 method.

Nadya Pancsofar, Lynne Vernon-Feagans, Erica Odom, Jacqueline R. Roe (2008). Family relationships during infancy and later mother and father vocabulary use with young children.23(4).Retrieved 11 October 2011 from
http://ezproxy.um.edu.my:2095/science? S0885200608000537-main.pdf

This study examined the contributions of marital love and conflict, and broader family-level conflict, cohesion, and expressiveness to mother and father vocabulary in triadic interactions with their young children in 70 dual-earner families. It was found that after controlling for parent sensitivity and parent directive behavior, marital love and family conflict when children were 12 months of age were significant predictors of both father vocabulary and mother vocabulary to children at 24 months of age. In families with higher levels of marital love when children were 12 months of age, mothers and fathers used a more diverse vocabulary with their 24-month-old children. In families with lower levels of family conflict when children were 12 months of age, mothers and fathers used a more diverse vocabulary with their 24-month-old children.

Nonie K. Lesaux, Amy C. Crosson, Michael J. Kieffer, Margaret Pierce(2010). Uneven profiles: Language minority learners’ word reading vocabulary and reading comprehension skills, 31(6). Retrieved 11 October 2011 from
http://ezproxy.um.edu.my:2095/science/ S0193397310001073-main.pdf

English reading comprehension skill development was examined in a group of 87 native Spanish-speakers developing English literacy skills, followed from fourth through fifth grade. The effects of Spanish (L1) and English (L2) oral language and word reading skills on reading comprehension were investigated. The results converge with findings from studies with monolinguals demonstrating the influence of oral language on reading comprehension outcomes, and extend these findings by showing that, for language minority learners, L2 oral language exerts a stronger influence than word reading in models of L2 reading.

Peiling Xing, Glenn Fulcher (2007).Reliability assessment for two versions of Vocabulary Levels Test, 35(2)
Retrieved 12 October 2011 from
http://ezproxy.um.edu.my:2095/science/S0346251X07000255-main.pdf

This study was motivated by a finding from an ongoing longitudinal study of vocabulary acquisition that Version A and Version B of vocabulary Levels Test at the 5000 word level were not parallel. In order to investigate this issue, Versions A and B were combined to create a single instrument. The data was analysed using correlation, and in order to discover if there was a significant difference between the two means of Version A and Version B, a t-test was used. Following that, a further examination of item facility values was conducted. The data analysis showed that Version A and Version B at the 5000 were highly correlated and highly reliable. They suggest that changes need to be made to the test before it is used in future longitudinal vocabulary growth studies
.

Serkan Çelik, Veli Toptaş (2010).Vocabulary learning strategy use of Turkish EFL learners. 3 pages 62-71.
Retrieved 12 October 2011 from
http://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S187704281001387X

This survey study aimed to examine vocabulary-learning strategies adopted by Turkish EFL students, specifically the frequencies and helpfulness ratings of strategy use, strategy patterns, as well as their change for students across different language levels. The study involved 95 tertiary level of English as a foreign language learners. Data were analyzed statistically and the results indicated that the participants’ general use of vocabulary learning strategies was somewhat inadequate and there was a gap between their use of strategies and related perceptions of strategy usefulness.

Shekeila D. Palmer, Jelena Havelka (2010). Age of acquisition effects in vocabulary learning, Acta Psychologica,135(3)
Retrieved 12 October 2011 from
http://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S0001691810001769

In a survey conducted by a researcher among 30 undergraduate students who are also the native speaker on the influence of using the age of acquisition (AoA) as a method to discover whether the native speaker are competent to acquaint pictures associated with a newly acquired second language. This experiment consists of three different methods which are the training session, a final test phase as well as the subtests. It was found that the students did not acquire the target since AoA was inconsistent because participants are able to acquire vocabulary using the method of learning from a given picture rather than a translation.

24. Julidiawati Saidon - October 14, 2011

NAME : Julidiawati Saidon
MATRIC NO. : PGP110032

Adams, D., & Angeles, R. (2008). Mobile devices at school : Possibilities, problems, and tough choices, Educational Technology, 48(1), 35-38

This article is about considering the use of mobile device in education. The possibilities and problems are listed out, as well as things that need to be considered before setting a policy in school.

Calvani, A. (2009). ICT in schools: What rationale? , Educational Technology, 49(4), 33-37

This article talks about the rationale of introducing ICT in schools. There were three justification levels which were look into in this article; ethical, innovative and ergonomic-didactic. It was found that many educators presume that because ICT exists, it is necessarily useful and must be introduced in schools. However, it is actually more necessary to attempt on a logical rationale for discussion on ICT to understand what we expect from ICT introduction in school.

Carrier, M. (2004). Getting started with elearning, Modern English Teacher, 13(3), 61-65

This article is about getting started with e-learning, focusing on how to create an online lesson using Dreamwaver software. The benefits of e-learning for students and teachers are listed out in this article. There are also a check list to guide teachers before they start designing their online lesson.

Chih, H. K. (2008). Designing an online writing system: learning with support, RELC Journal, 39(3), 285-297

This article is about designing an online writing system. It looks in to the needs of writing aids in the online environment. This article suggested three main parts of an online writing system which are writing practice, peer review and e-portfolio.

Gulbahar, Y., & Kalelioglu, F. ( 2010). Active learning through online instruction, Educational Technology, 50(3), 13-15

This research is about the use of proper instructional techniques in online discussions that lead to meaningful learning. The research took place in Turkey, where a case-study was conducted on 20 juniors attending the compulsory course “Distance Learning” at the Department of Computer Education and Instructional Technology. From the sample, 11 are female and 9 are male. Besides observation, questionnaire and informal interviews were used in this research. It was found that the adaptation of different discussion-based instructional techniques can be effectively done online.

Isman, A. (2010). Students’ perception of online learning, Educational Technology, 50(3), 53-54

This study is about students’ perception towards online learning. A number of 12 online students of varied cultures which includes Kazakhstan, Somalia, Jordan, Turkey and Cyprus were interviewed. The sampling was based on volunteer. Through the in-depth interview conducted, it was found that both cultural background and personal qualities affect students’ perception of online learning.

Kern, R. (2006). Perspectives on technology in learning and teaching languages, TESOL Quarterly, 40(1), 183-203

This article is about the perspectives on technology in learning and teaching of language. The first section of this article identifies and discusses the four key issues arising from the recent technology related literature ( the status of CALL, its theoretical grounding, its cultural embeddedness and its effectiveness. The second section generates from the findings of three current areas of research; computer-mediated computer-mediated communication (CMC), electronic literacies and telecollaboration. The final section of the article stated the implications for teaching and research, highlighting the importance of the teacher, new understandings of language and communication.

M. Naci Kayaoglu, (2009). Process writing with the internet, Modern English Teacher, 18(2), 48-50

This article is about teaching writing through the use of internet. A four-month pilot trial of internet based application for writing instruction was observed, followed by interview with teachers and students. The findings show that the majority of students managed to extend their skills of writing in a foreign language while enjoying the self-discovery method of online learning.

Norris,C., Hossain, A., & Soloway, E. (2011). Using smartphones as essential tools for learning, Educational Technology, 51(3), 18-25

This study is about using smartphones as essential tools for learning in future. The researchers observed the GoKnow software which is used at Nan Chiau primary school in Singapore. From the findings, it was found that the need of preparing students for a new world involves keeping up with the latest technology, in which the student will respond better to.

Pinner, R. (2011). Teaching with social networks, Modern English Teacher, 20(3), 37-39

This article is about teachers’ attitudes towards using technology for learning. The author emphasizes on the importance of privacy setting as well as explaining the netiquette to students before attempting to using social network for learning. The article also provide other lesson platform such as using facebook groups and twitter for learning.

Pinner, R. (2011). The importance of instructional technology in language teaching, Modern English Teacher, 20(1), 42-45

This study is about teachers’ perception towards using technology in classroom. A number of 174 teachers from 24 different countries had responded to the questionnaire and several teachers were interviewed. Through the findings, it was found that even teachers who rated themselves as low in digital literacy are in favour of using technology in class. However, they felt that the focus of the class should not be dominated by technology, and rather be used as a tool for a more student centred class.

Qiyun, W., & Huay, L. W. (2008). The affordances of weblogs and discussion forums for learning : A comparative analysis, Educational Technology, 48(5), 34-37

This article compares the affordances of weblogs and discussion forums for learning. It was found that weblogs and discussion forums have similarities and differences in terms of educational, social and technological affordances. This article also discusses the implications that the affordances have on teaching and learning.

Silva, R. (2011) Thinking outside the page: writing with Flickr, Modern English Teacher, 20(3), 40- 43

This article is about using Flickr, a photo-sharing website to teach writing. In the article, it explains the lesson procedure when using Flickr as a learning platform. Not only that, this article also emphasizes on the importance of sharing and collaboration in a writing class.

25. SHARILA CHRISTIE - October 14, 2011

NAME : SHARILA CHRISTIE
MATRIC NO : PGP 110003
COURSE : RESEARCH IN SLA ( PBGS 6113)
ANNOTATED BIBLIOGRAPHY

Bitchener, J. & Knoch, U. (2010). The contribution of written corrective feedback to language development: A ten month investigation. Applied Linguistics, 31(2): 193-214.

This article discusses some of the theoretical issues raised against the practice, outlines the status of recent empirical evidence and presents a 10-month study of the effects of WCF on two functional uses of the English article system given to 52 low-intermediate ESL students in Auckland, New Zealand. Assigned to four groups (direct corrective feedback, written, and oral meta-linguistic explanation; direct corrective feedback and written meta-linguistic explanation; direct corrective feedback only; the control group), the students produced five pieces of writing (pre-test, immediate post-test, and three delayed post-tests). Each of the treatment groups outperformed the control group on all post-tests and no difference in effectiveness was found between the three treatment groups.

Cheng, A. (2008). Analyzing genre exemplars in preparation for writing: The case of an L2 graduate student in the ESP genre-based instructional framework of academic literacy. Applied Linguistics, 29(1): 50-71.

This study focused on a Chinese-speaking graduate student in electrical engineering who analyzed genre exemplars in preparation for writing. The data reveals this student’s two prominent and interrelated ways of analyzing the discourse-level generic features in discipline-specific genre exemplars. They are (a) rhetorical, as evidenced in his consistent attention not only to the generic features, but also to the underlying rhetorical parameters, such as reader, writer, and purpose and (b) evaluative, as shown in his increasingly sophisticated evaluation of the discourse-level generic features in the genre exemplars. The student’s rhetorical and evaluative reading of the genre exemplars highlights the potential power of genre as an explicit, supportive tool for building academic literacy.

Chen, Y. S. & Su, S. W.(2011). A genre-based approach to teaching EFL summary writing. ELT J.

This article is a study on using a pre-test/post-test assignment to investigate the instructional of a genre-based approach to teaching summary writing. The method use is all the students’ summaries on the pre and post-test were evaluated against content, vocabulary and language use. Based on the statistical results, it was found that the approach was effective in improving students’ overall summarization performance.

Firkins, A., Forey, G. & Sima Sengupta, (2007). Teaching writing to low proficiency EFL students. ELT J, 61(4): 341-352.

This articles is a study on a genre-based literacy pedagogy which can be used with English language learners. The method use is involved a combination of two explicit teaching methodologies, a genre-based and activity based pedagogical approach. The pedagogy was introduced in an English Club at a local Hong Kong school. It was found that a genre-based is suitable for educational context to low proficiency EFL learners.

Frazier, S. (2007). Telling of rememberances ‘Touch off’ by student reports in group work in undergraduate writing classes. Applied Linguistics, 28(2): 189-210.

The study is to describe the sequential structures of a kind of talk typical to group work: students presenting ‘reports’ about early written drafts. Specifically, the data analysis in this paper looks at how a student’s report ‘touches off’ another student’s telling of a remembrance caused by the report, which in turn offers a complex analysis of the just-prior report, allowing the speaker to prove rather than merely claim an understanding of the report. Touched-off remembrances (TORs) are marked in other ways than just through talk: sometimes group members orient to them via understandings of the report-giver’s gestures and other embodied features.The study, which analyzes video data of naturally occurring interactions between students in writing classes, draws its theoretical basis from conversation-analytic literature on ‘second stories’ and on analytic approaches to the way talk, gesture, and other forms of embodiment produce action in the course of interaction.

Gilmore, A. (2009). Using online corpora to develop students’ writing skills. ELT J, 63(4): 363-372.

This article is a study on developing students’ writing skills through large corpora such as British National Corpus. The methodology is an exploratory investigations comparing two corpora in Japanese university writing classes. It was found that participations were able to improve their writing after 90-minutes training session and online resources are beneficial.

Harwood, N. (2005). ‘We do not seem to have a theory…The theory I present here attempts to fill this gap’: Inclusive and exclusive pronouns in academic writing. Applied Linguistics, 26(3): 343-375.

This research is a qualitative and quantitative corpus-based study of how academic writers use the personal pronouns I and inclusive and exclusive we. Using a multidisciplinary corpus comprising of journal research articles (RAs) from the fields of Business and Management, Computing Science, Economics, and Physics, I present data extracts which reveal how I and we can help writers create a sense of newsworthiness and novelty about their work, showing how they are plugging disciplinary knowledge gaps. The quantitative analysis reveals that while all instances of we in the Business and Management articles and all but one of the instances of we in the Economics articles are inclusive, only a third of the instances in the Computing articles and under 10 per cent of the instances in the Physics articles are inclusive. The study ends with a brief discussion of what a few English for Academic Purposes (EAP) textbooks tell students about inclusive and exclusive pronouns, and offers some suggestions for EAP classroom activities.

Lee, Y. W., Gentile, C. & Kantor, R.(2010). Toward automated multi-trait scoring of essays: Investigating links among holistic, analytic, and text feature scores. Applied Linguistics, 31(3): 391-417.

The study was to investigate the distinctness and reliability of analytic (or multi-trait) rating dimensions and their relationships to holistic scores and e-rater® essay feature variables in the context of the TOEFL® computer-based test (TOEFL CBT) writing assessment. Data analyzed in the study were holistic and multi-trait essay scores provided by human raters and essay feature variable scores computed by e-rater® (version 2.0) for two TOEFL CBT writing prompts. It was found that (i) all of the six multi-trait scores were not only correlated among themselves but also correlated with the holistic score, (ii) high correlations obtained among holistic and multi-trait scores were largely attributable to the impact of essay length on both holistic and multi-trait scoring, and (iii) some strong associations were confirmed between several e-rater variables and multi-trait rating dimensions. Implications are discussed for improving the multi-trait scoring of essays, refining e-rater essay feature variables, and validating automated essay scores.

Pichette, F., Serres, L, d & Lafontaine, M. (2011). Sentence reading and writing for second language vocabulary acquisition. Applied Linguistic.

This study compares the relative effectiveness of reading and writing sentences for the incidental acquisition of new vocabulary in a second language. It also examines if recall varies according to the concreteness of target words. Participants were 203 French-speaking intermediate and advanced English as second language (ESL) learners, tested for incidental acquisition of 16 rare concrete, or abstract L2 words. Immediate and delayed cued recall was used to assess acquisition. Results from immediate recall show superior recall for writing tasks over reading tasks, and for concrete words over abstract words. However, delayed recall scores suggest that this superiority disappears over time.

Rao, Z. H. (2007). Training in brainstorming and developing writing skills. ELT J, 61(2): 100-106.

This article describes an exploratory study which investigated the effects of training in brainstorming strategy on learners’ performance and perceptions about writing. It was conducted on learners who received instruction in brainstorming of two complete classes of sophomores in a Chinese university. The writing performance was assessed from beginning to the end of the study and compared with a third group that did not learn brainstorming strategy but completed the same pre and post-task. It was found that explicit instruction of brainstorming had a measureable influence on writing performance.

Stapleton, P. & Radia, P (2010). Tech-era L2 writing: toward a new kind of process. ELT J, 64(2): 175-183.

This article argues that L2 writing pedagogy needs to give more recognition to the impact of new technological tools and online resources. The methods use is collective influences of advance technology in L2 writing pedagogy compare to approach from product to process to genre documented in literature. It was found that efficient use of technology could have significant effect and new dimension has entered the writing process.

Szpara, M. Y. & Wylie, E. C. (2008). Writing differences in teacher performance assessments: An investigation of African American Language and edited American English. Applied Linguistics, 29(2): 244-266.

The study examined the writing styles of African American test takers in a National Board for Professional Teaching Standards (NBPTS) portfolio entry from the Middle Childhood/Generalist Certificate, as compared with the writing styles of European American test takers. The use of features other than Edited American English was examined as a possible source of construct-irrelevant variance in assessors’ scoring judgments. Thirty-two written commentaries, 18 from African American candidates and 14 from European American candidates, were coded for grammatical, lexical, and discourse features. The coding frame identified features of African American Language (AAL) and Speech Code Errors (SCE). Instances of AAL were fewer than instances of SCE and clustered according to potential users of AAL.

13. Tan, B. T. (2011). Language creativity and co-emergence of form and meaning in creative writing task. Applied Linguistics, 32(2): 215-235.

This study examines the opportunities for creative language use and emergence of complex language in creative writing tasks with high formal constraints (acrostics) and those with looser formal constraints (similes). It indicates that formal constraints lead to complex and creative language use, transforming familiar utterances into unfamiliar ones, shaping and reshaping learners’ language syntactically and lexically, paradigmatically, and syntagmatically. The study suggests that for learners’ language to develop in complexity, conditions need to be set, requiring them to access the L2 directly to construct new ideas and that opportunities are needed for both L2 forms and meaning to co-evolve.

14. Walker, R., & Riu, C. P. (2009). Coherence in the assessment of writing skills.ELT J.

This article is study on Extended Writing Project (EWP) as an alternative evaluation mechanism as there is contradiction of teaching writing through a process-genre approach. The methods use is students write text in consecutive sections and revised with external help. Then, final version is compared with drafts to gain insight to develop content and language. It was found that the EWP allowed the incorporation of process into the assessment of writing skills and increase learner autonomy.

15. Zhang, Y. (2009). Discussing the extended writing project. ELT J, 63(2): 167-169.

This article is study on Extended Writing Project (EWP) as an alternative evaluation mechanism as there is contradiction of teaching writing through a process-genre approach. The methods use is students write text in consecutive sections and revised with external help. Then, final version is compared with drafts to gain insight to develop content and language. It was found that the EWP allowed the incorporation of process into the assessment of writing skills and increase learner autonomy.

26. GreEn White - October 14, 2011

SITI SARAH BT. MUHAMAD AZMI
PGP110008
PBGS 6113 RESEARCH IN SECOND LANGUAGE ACQUISITION
RESEARCH TOPIC: Difficulties in second language acquisition encountered by Chinese adult learners. (A focus to Speaking ability)
COURSE REQUIREMENT 1: ANNOTATED BIBLIOGRAPHY

Al Rifai, N. (2009). Attitude, motivation, and difficulties involved in learning the English language and factors that affect motivation in learning it . Journal of Public Authority of Applied Education and Training Kuwait , 5216–5227. Retrieved 05 October 2011 from VTLS Chameleon iPortal database at http://www.sciencedirect.com/science?_ob=MiamiImageURL&_cid=277811&_user=2757214&_pii=S187704281000889X&_check=y&_origin=search&_coverDate=31-Dec-2010&view=c&wchp=dGLzVlt-zSkzV&md5=94787801b32a9b659246b5d561a14b49/1-s2.0-S187704281000889X-main.pdf

The objective of this research is to observe students’ attitudes, motivations, and difficulties involved in learning the second language (English) and the factors affecting their motivation to learn it. From the research that has been conducted, appropriate changes can be recommended in teaching methods, teaching strategies, class courses, and learning strategies. In order to conduct the research, the questionnaire was circulated to about 200 students who have taken different English courses.

Bundgaard-Nielsen, R.L. , Best, C.T. , & Tyler, M.D. (2011). University of Western Sydney , Australia. A study in Second Language Acquisition. Vocabulary Size Is Associated With Second-Language Vowel Perception Performance In Adult Learners. Cambridge Journals Online. Retrieved 12 October 2011 from UMLibWeb interaktif database at
http://ezproxy.um.edu.my:2726/action/displayFulltexttype=1&pdftype=1&fid=8330651&jid=SLA&volumeId=33&issueId=03&aid=8330649

This article is about a research study that has been conducted to observe the role of English vocabulary towards second language acquisition. This study suggested that early L2 lexical development facilitates the establishment of phonological categories in a manner analogous to children’s fi rst-language (L1) acquisition before as opposed to after the vocabulary spurt.

Ehrman, M.E, Leaver, B.L., Oxford, R.L. (2009). A brief overview of individual differences in second language learning. Foreign Service Institute, US Department of State, Washington DC .Retrieved 05 October 2011 from VTLS Chameleon iPortal database at http://www.sciencedirect.com/science_ob=MiamiImageURL&_cid=271757&_user=2757214&_pii=S0346251X03000459&_check=y&_origin=search&_coverDate=30-Sep-2003&view=c&wchp=dGLzVBAzSkzS&md5=6309ed783b89aac19dcdf4e71acba9e6/1-s2.0-S0346251X03000459-main.pdf

This paper offers a brief but broad overview of the field of individual differences in language learning, especially as they are reflected in learning styles, learning strategies, and affective variables, and touches on some areas for further research.

Fitzpatrick, T., Izura, C. (2011). Swansea University. A study in Second Language Acquisition. Word Association In L1 And L2. An Exploratory Study of Response Types, Response Times, and Interlingual Mediation. Cambridge Journals Online. Retrieved 12 October 2011 from UMLibWeb interaktif database at
http://ezproxy.um.edu.my:2726/action/displayFulltexttype=1&fid=8330645&jid=SLA&volumeId=33&issueId=03&aid=8330643&bodyId=&membershipNumber=&societyETOCSession=

This study was conducted to observe the interrelated between L1 and L2 response given by first-language (L1) Spanish and second language (L2) English. The primary aims of this research is to establish whether (a) some response types are produced more often or faster than others, (b) participants’ L2 response time profiles mirror those of their L1, and (c) participants’ L2 association responses are mediated by their L1 and modulated by proficiency. Results indicate that responses are faster when a double association link is produced., whether response is associated by form and meaning or meaning and collocation,.

Golestani, N., Zatorre, R.J. (2008). Individual differences in the acquisition of second language phonology. Retrieved 05 October 2011 from VTLS Chameleon iPortal database at . http://www.sciencedirect.com/science_ob=MiamiImageURL&_cid=272554&_user=2757214&_pii=S0093934X08000151&_check=y&_origin=search&_zone=rslt_list_item&_coverDate=2009-06-30&wchp=dGLzVlk-zSkzV&md5=6dd694ec68120064eb4dd57be7587d00/1-s2.0-S0093934X08000151-main.pdf

The aim of this research is to characterized individual differences in non-native speech sound learning. Fifty-nine adult English speakers were trained to distinguish the Hindi dental–retroflex contrast, as well as a tonal pitch contrast. The results suggest that successful learning of the speech sounds involves the formation of a long-term memory category representation for the new speech sound.

Hawkins, R. (2007). The nativist perspective on second language acquisition. Department of Language and Linguistics, University of Essex, Wivenhoe Park, Colchester. Retrieved 05 October 2011 from VTLS Chameleon iPortal database at http://www.sciencedirect.com/science_ob=MiamiImageURL&_cid=271778&_user=2757214&_pii=S0024384107000769&_check=y&_origin=search&_zone=rslt_list_item&_coverDate=2008-04-30&wchp=dGLzVlkzSkzV&md5=0875ef9234a08a39934597ccc968cdd1/1-s2.0-S0024384107000769-main.pdf

Three arguments are offered in this research to support the view that answers to the questions-grammar gives rise to observed performance, cannot be achieved without assuming that L2 learners have innate linguistic knowledge that determines the form their grammars.

Huang, L-S. (2009). Do different modalities of reflection matter? An exploration of adult second-language learners’ reported strategy use and oral language production. Department of Linguistics, University of Victoria, Canada . Retrieved 05 October 2011 from VTLS Chameleon iPortal database .

This paper reports on a small-scale study that was the first to explore raising second-language(L2) learners’ awareness of speaking strategies as mediated by three modalities of task-specific reflection which is individual written reflection, individual spoken reflection, and group spoken reflection. From a pedagogical perspective, the findings offer instructors information about learners’ strategic behaviours and about how various types of language-learning classrooms can incorporate different modalities of reflective practice that enable learners to develop a metacognitive awareness of their ongoing learning.

Ionin, T., Luisa, M., & Bautista Maldonado, Z.S (2009). Sources of linguistic knowledge in the second language acquisition of English articles . Department of Linguistics and Division of English as an International Language, University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign. Retrieved 05 October 2011 from VTLS Chameleon iPortal database at . http://www.sciencedirect.com/science_ob=MiamiImageURL&_cid=271778&_user=2757214&_pii=S0024384107000800&_check=y&_origin=search&_zone=rslt_list_item&_coverDate=2008-04-30&wchp=dGLzVlk-zSkzV&md5=cec6d7325c967627c83cb2ea57943056/1-s2.0-S0024384107000800-main.pdf

This paper examines three sources of knowledge in the acquisition of English articles by second language (L2) learners: L1-transfer, L2-input and Universal Grammar (UG). It takes the samples from L1-Spanish and L1-Russian. It is shown that L1-Spanish learners of English transfer the semantics of Spanish articles onto English, and thus correctly categorize English articles on the basis of definiteness. In contrast, L1-Russian learners of English exhibit fluctuation between the concepts of definiteness and specificity, consistent with earlier findings.

Montrul, S. (2009). University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign . Multiple interfaces and incomplete acquisition. Retrieved 05 October 2011 from VTLS Chameleon iPortal database at
http://www.sciencedirect.com/science_ob=MiamiImageURL&_cid=271778&_user=2757214&_pii=S0024384110001609&_check=y&_origin=search&_zone=rslt_list_item&_coverDate=2011-03-31&wchp=dGLzVlS-zSkzS&md5=a4714cd4425dd52d4cb9d3734e679799/1-s2.0-S0024384110001609-main.pdf

This article is about a research study that has been conducted to observe vulnerability of specific interfaces on incomplete acquisition in L2 and heritage language acquisition. This study also discussed the examples of grammatical properties involving multiple interfaces and showed how the concept of internal and external interfaces is problematic.

Osterhout, L., Poliakov, A., KayoInoue, et.al (2008). Second-language learning and changes in
the brain.Retrieved 05 October 2011 from VTLS Chameleon iPortal database at http://www.sciencedirect.com/science?_ob=MiamiImageURL&_cid=271797&_user=2757214&_pii=S091160440800002X&_check=y&_origin=search&_zone=rslt_list_item&_coverDate=2008-11-30&wchp=dGLbVlV-zSkWA&md5=194a42b8855591b1147e8965614ea256/1-s2.0-S091160440800002X-main.pdf

This paper illustrate by way of example how modern brain-based methods can be used to discern some of the changes that occur during L2 learning. Preliminary results from three studies indicate that classroom-based L2 instruction can result in changes in the brain’s electrical activity, in the location of this activity within the brain, and in the structure of the learners’ brains. These changes can occur during the earliest stages of L2 acquisition.

Tremblay, A. (2011). University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign. A study in Second Language
Acquisition. Proficiency Assessments Standards In Second Language Acquisition Research. “Clozing” the Gap. Cambridge Journals Online . Retrieved 12 October 2011 from UMLibWeb interaktif database at http://ezproxy.um.edu.my:2726/action/displayFulltext?type=1&fid=8330642&jid=SLA&volumeId=33&issueId=03&aid=8330640&bodyId=&membershipNumber=&societyETOCSession=#

This article is about a research study that has been conducted to observe student’s proficiency towards second language acquisition. This experimental research study was conducted in France where the researchers used the cloze (i.e., fill in the blank) tests as a tool to measure the French student’s at the University of Illinois of their levels of proficiency. In a survey conducted, subject and item analyses are performed on the cloze test scores of 169 L2 learners of French from various language backgrounds. According to this research, factors external to the classroom, such as L2 learners’ age of first exposure to the target language, their length of residence in an environment where that language is spoken, and their percentage of weekly use of the target language, play an important role in determining their L2 proficiency.

White, L. (2009). Second language acquisition at the interfaces.. Retrieved 05 October 2011 from VTLS Chameleon iPortal database at
http://www.sciencedirect.com/science_ob=MiamiImageURL&_cid=271778&_user=2757214&_pii=S0024384110001592&_check=y&_origin=search&_zone=rslt_list_item&_coverDate=2011-03-31&wchp=dGLzVlk-zSkWA&md5=84ec4f25e2a408cf26ea201c75d3f48c/1-s2.0-S0024384110001592-main.pdf

In this paper, the researcher is trying to figure out the difficulties faced by second language learners in order to acquire the language in term of linguistic system and grammar external components

27. drjessie - October 15, 2011

You need to alphabetize this biblio.

Di Siti Shi - October 16, 2011

Hi, Dr. Jessie, I have made a revision and alphabetized my bibliogrophy as the following:

NAME: Siti Shi Di (PGP110024)

AREA OF RESEARCH: VOCABULARY AND SEMANTICS ACQUISITION IN SECOND LANGUAGE

Article 1

Ard, J., & Gass, S. M. (2008). Lexical Constraints on Syntactic Acquisition. Studies in Second Language Acquisition, 9, 233-252.

This paper investigates what has traditionally been viewed as syntactic acquisition, with the goal of questioning whether what appears to be syntactic acquisition is more appropriately described as lexical or semantic acquisition. Data come from responses to a grammaticality judgment test by learners of English as a second language at two proficiency levels and four syntactic structures were examined. The sentences tested varied in the verbs used (e.g., John donated/gave Mary a present; John donated/gave a present to Mary). The results suggest that less proficient subjects use syntactic strategies, more proficient learners use more semantic based strategies, and there is more lexical differentiation at the lower levels of proficiency. Thus, as learners gain in proficiency, there is an increased influence of the semantic relatedness of lexical items.

Article 2

Barcroft, J. (2009). Effects of Synonym Generation on Incidental and Intentional L2 Vocabulary Learning During Reading. TESOL Quarterly, 43(1), 79-103.

This study examined effects of synonym generation on second language vocabulary learning during reading in both incidental and intentional vocabulary learning contexts. Spanish-speaking adult learners of L2 English (N=114) at low- and high-intermediate proficiency levels read in English passage containing 10 target words translated in the text. Participants were assigned to one of four conditions: a). Read for meaning only (incidental); b). Read for meaning and try to learn the translated words (intentional); c). Read for meaning and generate Spanish synonyms for the translated words (incidental + semantic); d). Read for meaning, try to learn the 10 translated words, and generate Spanish synonyms for the translated words (intentional + semantic). Posttest measures were English-to-Spanish and Spanish-to-English recall of target words. Target word recall was provided and when synonym generation was not required. Negative effects of synonym generation emerged in both the incidental and intentional learning conditions.

Article 3

Bogaards, P. (2001). Lexical Units and the Learning of Foreign Language Vocabulary. Studies in Second Language Acquisition, 23, 321-343.

In this paper the concept of “lexical unit” as proposed by Cruse (1986) is introduced in the context of L2 vocabulary learning to replace the rather vague notion of “word.” In the first part of the paper, this concept is defined in terms of lexical semantics and then applied to the L2 learning task. The second part describes two experimental studies in which the learning of different types of lexical units is examined. In the first study, totally new lexical units are compared with multiword items that are made up of familiar forms. In the second experiment, different types of new senses of familiar forms are compared. Both studies underscore the importance of knowledge of form—but not of previously learned meaning—for the learning of new meanings for familiar forms.

Article 4

Elgort, I. (2011). Deliberate Leaning and Vocabulary Acquisition in a Second Language. Language Learning, 61(2), 367-413.

This study investigates outcomes of deliberate learning on vocabulary acquisition in a second language. Acquisition of 48 pseudowords was measured using the lexical decision task with visually presented stimuli. The experiments drew on form priming, masked repetition priming, and automatic semantic priming procedures. Data analyses revealed prime lexical effect (Experiment 1), repetition priming effect (Experiment 2), and semantic priming effect (Experiment 3) for the deliberately learned pseudowords. The results showed that the learned pseudowords were processed with a higher degree of automaticity than nonwords and low-frequency L2 words. Taken together, the findings provide evidence that deliberate learning triggered the acquisition of representational and functional aspects of vocabulary knowledge.

Article 5

Finkbeiner, M., & Nicol, J. (2003). Semantic category effects in second language word learning. Applied Psycholinguistics, 24, 369-383.

The present study addresses a long-standing assumption in the field of applied linguistics: that presenting new second language (L2) vocabulary in semantically grouped sets is an effective method of teaching. Participants learned 32 new L2 labels for concepts from four different semantic categories in either a related or unrelated condition. At test, participants translated words in both translation directions. It is founded that a semantic interference effect both during the encoding of information into memory and during the retrieval of information in translation. These findings in terms of theoretical models of L2 lexical representation and development, as well as in more practical terms of L2 curriculum design and vocabulary instruction are discussed.

Article 6

Folse, K. S. (2006). The Effect of Type of Written Exercise on L2 Vocabulary Retention. TESOL Quarterly, 40(2), 273-293.

This study used a within-subjects design to examine the effect of the type of written exercise on L2 vocabulary retention. Using input for the meaning and usage of the new words from a specially prepared mini-dictionary, 154 university intensive English program students practiced target vocabulary in three types of written exercises conditions. An unannounced posttest using a modified version of the vocabulary knowledge scale tested the meaning of the word (L1 translation or L2 synonym) and usage of the word in a student-written sentence. The findings suggest the important feature of a given L2 vocabulary exercise is not depth of word processing but number of word retrievals required.

Article 7

Kim, Y. J. (2011). The Role of Task-Induced Involvement and Learner Proficiency in L2 Vocabulary Acquisition. Language Learning, 61(1), 100-140.

This study examined the hypothesis by exploring the interaction between task-induced involvement and learners’ L2 proficiency on the initial learning and retention of target words. The study consisted of two experiments that were carried out with English-as-a-second-language learners at two different levels of task-induced involvement (n=64), whereas Experiment 2 included two tasks hypothesized to represent the same task-induced involvement (n=20). The findings indicated that: 1). There is no interaction effect between task-induced involvement and L2 proficiency on vocabulary learning. However, as long as L2 learners’ cognitive and language abilities allow them to complete vocabulary tasks in a given time, a deeper level of processing of the new words, especially the evaluation component of task-induced involvement during tasks, facilitates L2 vocabulary learning; 2). It is possible to design different types of vocabulary tasks inducing similar amounts of involvement loads and that they can be equally beneficial for vocabulary learning.

Article 8

Papathanasiou, E. (2009). An Investigation of Two Ways of Presenting Vocabulary. ELT Journal, 63(4), 313-322.

The aim of this study is to examine which manner of L2 vocabulary presentation is more helpful for L2 learners. It was conducted in EFL classrooms with Greek EFL students. The subjects were 31 intermediate EFL children and 32 beginner EFL adults. The two different ways of organizing new vocabulary for presentation were tested. The article will focus on the main conclusion that semantically related clustering impedes L2 vocabulary learning at beginners’ level.

Article 9

Paradis, J., & Genesee, F.(2008).Syntactic Acquisition in Bilingual Children: Autonomous or Interdependent? Studies in Second Language Acquisition (1996), 18: 1-25

The present study investigates the potential interference between the grammars of French-English bilingual children, aged 2–3 years. We examined their acquisition of functional categories, specifically the properties of INFL (finiteness and agreement) and negation, as these grammatical properties differ in both adult French and English and child French and English. Our results indicate that the bilingual children show no evidence of transfer, acceleration, or delay in acquisition, and support the hypothesis that their grammars are acquired autonomously.

Article 10

Tight, D. G. (2010). Perceptual Learning Style Matching and L2 Vocabulary Acquisition. Language Learning, 60(4), 792-833.

This study explored learning and retention of concrete nouns in second language Spanish by first language English undergraduates (N=128). Each completed a learning style (visual, auditory, tactile/kinesthetic, mixed) assessment, took a vocabulary pretest, and then studies 12 words each through three conditions (matching, mismatching, mixed modality). The findings indicate learners of different style preferences are equally successful at L2 vocabulary acquisition and that instruction through multiple modalities may be even more beneficial than matching individual preferences.

Article 11

Tonzar, C., Lotto, L., & Job, R. (2009). L2 Vocabulary Acquisition in Children: Effects of Learning Method and Cognate Status. Language Learning, 59(3), 623-646.

This study investigated the effects of two learning methods (picture- or word- mediated learning) and of word status (cognates vs. non-cognates) on the vocabulary acquisition of two foreign languages: English and German. Children from fourth and eighth grades in a school setting were examined. After a learning phase during which L2 words were presented either together with the corresponding translation in L1 (word-learning method) or with the picture of the object to which the word refers (picture-learning method), children were tested at different points in time. The results showed that the picture-based method leads to a better performance than the word-based method, but this effect was modulated by cognate status and age of learning.

Article 12

Vermeer, A. (2011). Breadth and depth of vocabulary in relation to L1/L2 acquisition and frequency of input. Applied Psycholinguistics, 22, 217-234.

Two empirical studies set out to explore the relation between breadth and depth of word knowledge and to link these concepts with language acquisition and frequency of language input. In the first study, the breadth and depth of word knowledge of 50 Dutch monolingual and bilingual kindergartners were investigated using receptive vocabulary, description, and association tasks. The second study examined the relation between the probability of knowing a word and the input frequency of that word in 1,600 Dutch monolingual and bilingual 4- and 7-year-olds. The findings are that: a).there was no conceptual distinction between breadth and depth of vocabulary; b).breadth and depth were affected by the same factors for both monolingual and bilingual speakers; c).very high correlations were found between monolingual and bilingual speakers with respect to the probability of knowing a word, which was strongly related to the input frequency in primary education.

Article 13

Yuko, H. (2010). The Categorical Facilitation Effects on L2 Vocabulary Learning in a Classroom Setting. RELC Journal, 41(3), 301-312.

This study investigated which if the five types of word lists (synonyms, antonyms, categorical, thematic, and arbitrary) facilitated L2 vocabulary learning in a classroom setting. The participants were classified into four clusters according to their learning styles, and the study compared the relative effectiveness of the types of word list on different types of learners. The results showed that the most effective type of word list did not vary according to student clusters: all of the learners memorized the words in the categorical list more effectively than those in the other lists. Hence, the type of word list had a stronger effect on the efficacy of vocabulary learning than the individual learning style did.

28. PRASHENANAIR D/O PREBAKARRAN (PGP110011) - October 15, 2011

Annotated Bibliography 1

Akbarian, I. (2010). The relationship between vocabulary size and depth for ESP/EAP learners, 38(3). Retrieved 2 October 2011, from http://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S0346251X10000795

In a survey conducted by a researcher among 112 ESP graduate students in the correlation relating vocabulary size along with depth via English Language as in an academic purposes (ESP/EAP). Participants were tested by using the method of Vocabulary Level Test (VLT) that analyzed the size test and Word Associates Test (WAT) which is a test on depth. It was found that, these students who participated in the test on VLT and WAT shared the equal discrepancy. Conversely, as the students proficiency increases, the vocabulary size and depth increases as well.

Annotated Bibliography 2

Chang, S., & Ching, A. (2007). The impact of vocabulary preparation on L2 listening comprehension, confidence and strategy use, 35. Retrieved 2 October 2011, from http://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S0346251X07000632

The article is a study on vocabulary organization preceding in the track of listening comprehension, confidence altitude and strategy use. The module for this experiment has been conducted via students as the participant by giving each of them a test, questionnaire along with interviews. It was found that, time is an important factor in the progress result because students tend to produce excellent result if they were given plenty of time. It is therefore concluded that students overall performance exemplified unswerving flow because of the longer duration of time which allows them to perform better in order to produce an tremendous consequence thus allowing them to be more certain to answer the given question by installing the strategy use.

Annotated Bibliography 3

Chen,C.M., & Chung, C.J. (2007). Personalized mobile English vocabulary learning system based on item response theory and learning memory cycle. Computers & Education, 51(2). Retrieved 2 October 2011, from http://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S0360131507000772

The article is about learning pertinent English vocabulary based on the aptitude of an individual as a leaner that comprise memorization cycle using the personalize mobile English vocabulary system based on Item Response Theory which uses a system which is the personal digital assistant (PDA). Thus, an experiment had been conducted using a leaner which comprises PDA operation training, pre-test, post-test with questionnaire. It was found that PDA is an effective system due to its dynamic and vibrant module which carries a positive significant for English vocabulary learning, therefore learning vocabulary via mobile enhances a better quality of understanding vocabulary.

Annotated Bibliography 4

Chen, Y., Ding, Z., Jia, J., & Ruan, M. (2011). Effects of a vocabulary acquisition and assessment system on students’ performance in a blended learning class for English subject. Computers & Education, 58(1). Retrieved 2 October 2011, from http://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S0360131511001801

This article is about an analysis on vocabulary acquisition based on the assessment approach in order to get whole of the students proficiency in their vocabulary. Participants consists of students, who then uses a series of survey and interviews, Moddle (programmed software),
quiz, school test as the quantitative analysis. It was revealed that the assessment approach and vocabulary acquisition steadily enhance the students performance in their vocabulary acquisition.

Annotated Bibliography 5

Chujo,K., & Utiyama, M. (2005). Understanding the role of text length, sample size and
vocabulary size in determining text coverage,17.Retrieved 2 October 2011, from http://nflrc.hawaii.edu/rfl/april2005/chujo/chujo.html

This article is about an analysis on text coverage immovability that stimulates from the vocabulary size, text length and sample size. Thus, an experiment had been conducted using sampling or subjective method which examines text to encounter standard deviation using an empirical method. It was found that, the text coverage are more stable if the selection of vocabulary size is larger along with expansive text length sample as well as ample samples are used.

Annotated Bibliography 6

Çiftçi, H., & Üster, S. (2009). A comparative analysis of teaching vocabulary in context and by definition. Procedia – Social and Behavioral Sciences, 1(1).Retrieved 2 October 2011, from http://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S187704280900278X

Article B is a study of multiplicity in teaching vocabulary and their adequacy which consists of two diverse module, teaching vocabulary in discourse and context as well as by using the word definitions. Participants are used as the experiment which deals with a pretest and posttest. Taken as a whole, the performance for both techniques does not make a noteworthy variation because it was found that teaching vocabulary in context and definition has the similar overall performance.

Annotated Bibliography 7

Clouston, M.L. (2010). Theology lectures as lexical environments: A case study of technical vocabulary use. Journal of English for Academic Purposes,9(4).Retrieved 2 October 2011, from http://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S1475158510000548

In a case study conducted by a researcher among first year graduate theology course on the application of technical vocabulary that entail in a theology lecture using the lexical method as the environment in teaching using 23 classes as the experiment observation which consists materials such as computer programs ( VocabProfile and MonoConc Pro) and audiotape lectures, it was found that students acquire lexical environment who monitor themselves in nominal vocabulary in context.

Annotated Bibliography 8

Havelka, J., & Palmer, S.D. (2010). Age of acquisition effects in vocabulary learning. Acta Psychological, 135(3).Retrieved 2 October 2011, from http://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S0001691810001769

In a survey conducted by a researcher among 30 undergraduate students who are also the native speaker on the influence of using the age of acquisition (AoA) as a method to discover whether the native speaker are competent to acquaint pictures associated with a newly acquired second language. This experiment consists of three different methods which are the training session, a final test phase as well as the subtests. It was found that the students did not acquire the target since AoA was inconsistent because participants are able to acquire vocabulary using the method of learning from a given picture rather than a translation.

Annotated Bibliography 9

Huang,S.H., Huang, Y.M., Huang,Y.M., & Lin,Y.L. (2011). A ubiquitous English vocabulary learning system. Evidence of active/passive attitudes vs. usefulness/ease-of-use, 58(1). Retrieved 2 October 2011, from
http://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S0360131511001862

The article examines ubiquitous English vocabulary learning (UEVL) system by using a systematic vocabulary progression among 40 students which is then divided to active and passive student from a Taiwan university. It was found that, active student value and acknowledges the UEVL system and on the other hand the passive student tries hard to understand the importance of the system. Therefore, the system manipulates the students’ perception in vocabulary learning system.

Annotated Bibliography 10

Kwary, D.A. (2011). A hybrid method for determining technical vocabulary, 39(2). Retrieved 2 October 2011, from http://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S0346251X11000431

The article is a study on method used to determine technical vocabulary which consists of four methods which are the keyword analysis, vocabulary classification term extraction (computer programs) as well as systematic classifications which construct technical vocabulary list using a subjective approach. It was found that, a hybrid method was formed subsequent to the theory test which shows a better way to determine technical vocabulary along with the inauguration of words.

Annotated Bibliography 11

Nacera, A. (2010). Languages learning strategies and the vocabulary size. Procedia – Social and Behavioral Sciences, 2(2). Retrieved 2 October 2011, from http://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S1877042810006749

This article is about measures taken in language learning strategies by using the vocabulary size as an approach to master the meaning of words. The participants were students where they were given Oxford modules (1990) which are the “Strategies Inventory for Language Learning“(SILL) and “The University Word Level Test” (UWLT) form B to measure the learning strategies and vocabulary size. It was found that, students with higher vocabulary size tend to appraise the strategies compared to students with lower vocabulary size along with using different strategies as the learning styles.

29. Di Siti Shi - October 15, 2011

Hi, Dr. Jessie, I have made a revision and alphabetized my bibliogrophy as the following:

NAME: Siti Shi Di (PGP 110024)

AREA OF RESEARCH: VOCABULARY AND SEMANTICS ACQUISITION IN SECOND LANGUAGE

Ard, J., & Gass, S. M. (2008). Lexical Constraints on Syntactic Acquisition. Studies in Second Language Acquisition, 9, 233-252.

This paper investigates what has traditionally been viewed as syntactic acquisition, with the goal of questioning whether what appears to be syntactic acquisition is more appropriately described as lexical or semantic acquisition. Data come from responses to a grammaticality judgment test by learners of English as a second language at two proficiency levels and four syntactic structures were examined. The sentences tested varied in the verbs used (e.g., John donated/gave Mary a present; John donated/gave a present to Mary). The results suggest that less proficient subjects use syntactic strategies, more proficient learners use more semantic based strategies, and there is more lexical differentiation at the lower levels of proficiency. Thus, as learners gain in proficiency, there is an increased influence of the semantic relatedness of lexical items.

Barcroft, J. (2009). Effects of Synonym Generation on Incidental and Intentional L2 Vocabulary Learning During Reading. TESOL Quarterly, 43(1), 79-103.

This study examined effects of synonym generation on second language vocabulary learning during reading in both incidental and intentional vocabulary learning contexts. Spanish-speaking adult learners of L2 English (N=114) at low- and high-intermediate proficiency levels read in English passage containing 10 target words translated in the text. Participants were assigned to one of four conditions: a). Read for meaning only (incidental); b). Read for meaning and try to learn the translated words (intentional); c). Read for meaning and generate Spanish synonyms for the translated words (incidental + semantic); d). Read for meaning, try to learn the 10 translated words, and generate Spanish synonyms for the translated words (intentional + semantic). Posttest measures were English-to-Spanish and Spanish-to-English recall of target words. Target word recall was provided and when synonym generation was not required. Negative effects of synonym generation emerged in both the incidental and intentional learning conditions.

Bogaards, P. (2001). Lexical Units and the Learning of Foreign Language Vocabulary. Studies in Second Language Acquisition, 23, 321-343.

In this paper the concept of “lexical unit” as proposed by Cruse (1986) is introduced in the context of L2 vocabulary learning to replace the rather vague notion of “word.” In the first part of the paper, this concept is defined in terms of lexical semantics and then applied to the L2 learning task. The second part describes two experimental studies in which the learning of different types of lexical units is examined. In the first study, totally new lexical units are compared with multiword items that are made up of familiar forms. In the second experiment, different types of new senses of familiar forms are compared. Both studies underscore the importance of knowledge of form—but not of previously learned meaning—for the learning of new meanings for familiar forms.

Elgort, I. (2011). Deliberate Leaning and Vocabulary Acquisition in a Second Language. Language Learning, 61(2), 367-413.

This study investigates outcomes of deliberate learning on vocabulary acquisition in a second language. Acquisition of 48 pseudowords was measured using the lexical decision task with visually presented stimuli. The experiments drew on form priming, masked repetition priming, and automatic semantic priming procedures. Data analyses revealed prime lexical effect (Experiment 1), repetition priming effect (Experiment 2), and semantic priming effect (Experiment 3) for the deliberately learned pseudowords. The results showed that the learned pseudowords were processed with a higher degree of automaticity than nonwords and low-frequency L2 words. Taken together, the findings provide evidence that deliberate learning triggered the acquisition of representational and functional aspects of vocabulary knowledge.

Finkbeiner, M., & Nicol, J. (2003). Semantic category effects in second language word learning. Applied Psycholinguistics, 24, 369-383.

The present study addresses a long-standing assumption in the field of applied linguistics: that presenting new second language (L2) vocabulary in semantically grouped sets is an effective method of teaching. Participants learned 32 new L2 labels for concepts from four different semantic categories in either a related or unrelated condition. At test, participants translated words in both translation directions. It is founded that a semantic interference effect both during the encoding of information into memory and during the retrieval of information in translation. These findings in terms of theoretical models of L2 lexical representation and development, as well as in more practical terms of L2 curriculum design and vocabulary instruction are discussed.

Folse, K. S. (2006). The Effect of Type of Written Exercise on L2 Vocabulary Retention. TESOL Quarterly, 40(2), 273-293.

This study used a within-subjects design to examine the effect of the type of written exercise on L2 vocabulary retention. Using input for the meaning and usage of the new words from a specially prepared mini-dictionary, 154 university intensive English program students practiced target vocabulary in three types of written exercises conditions. An unannounced posttest using a modified version of the vocabulary knowledge scale tested the meaning of the word (L1 translation or L2 synonym) and usage of the word in a student-written sentence. The findings suggest the important feature of a given L2 vocabulary exercise is not depth of word processing but number of word retrievals required.

Kim, Y. J. (2011). The Role of Task-Induced Involvement and Learner Proficiency in L2 Vocabulary Acquisition. Language Learning, 61(1), 100-140.

This study examined the hypothesis by exploring the interaction between task-induced involvement and learners’ L2 proficiency on the initial learning and retention of target words. The study consisted of two experiments that were carried out with English-as-a-second-language learners at two different levels of task-induced involvement (n=64), whereas Experiment 2 included two tasks hypothesized to represent the same task-induced involvement (n=20). The findings indicated that: 1). There is no interaction effect between task-induced involvement and L2 proficiency on vocabulary learning. However, as long as L2 learners’ cognitive and language abilities allow them to complete vocabulary tasks in a given time, a deeper level of processing of the new words, especially the evaluation component of task-induced involvement during tasks, facilitates L2 vocabulary learning; 2). It is possible to design different types of vocabulary tasks inducing similar amounts of involvement loads and that they can be equally beneficial for vocabulary learning.

Papathanasiou, E. (2009). An Investigation of Two Ways of Presenting Vocabulary. ELT Journal, 63(4), 313-322.

The aim of this study is to examine which manner of L2 vocabulary presentation is more helpful for L2 learners. It was conducted in EFL classrooms with Greek EFL students. The subjects were 31 intermediate EFL children and 32 beginner EFL adults. The two different ways of organizing new vocabulary for presentation were tested. The article will focus on the main conclusion that semantically related clustering impedes L2 vocabulary learning at beginners’ level.

Paradis, J., & Genesee, F.(2008).Syntactic Acquisition in Bilingual Children: Autonomous or Interdependent? Studies in Second Language Acquisition (1996), 18: 1-25

The present study investigates the potential interference between the grammars of French-English bilingual children, aged 2–3 years. We examined their acquisition of functional categories, specifically the properties of INFL (finiteness and agreement) and negation, as these grammatical properties differ in both adult French and English and child French and English. Our results indicate that the bilingual children show no evidence of transfer, acceleration, or delay in acquisition, and support the hypothesis that their grammars are acquired autonomously.

Tight, D. G. (2010). Perceptual Learning Style Matching and L2 Vocabulary Acquisition. Language Learning, 60(4), 792-833.

This study explored learning and retention of concrete nouns in second language Spanish by first language English undergraduates (N=128). Each completed a learning style (visual, auditory, tactile/kinesthetic, mixed) assessment, took a vocabulary pretest, and then studies 12 words each through three conditions (matching, mismatching, mixed modality). The findings indicate learners of different style preferences are equally successful at L2 vocabulary acquisition and that instruction through multiple modalities may be even more beneficial than matching individual preferences.

Tonzar, C., Lotto, L., & Job, R. (2009). L2 Vocabulary Acquisition in Children: Effects of Learning Method and Cognate Status. Language Learning, 59(3), 623-646.

This study investigated the effects of two learning methods (picture- or word- mediated learning) and of word status (cognates vs. non-cognates) on the vocabulary acquisition of two foreign languages: English and German. Children from fourth and eighth grades in a school setting were examined. After a learning phase during which L2 words were presented either together with the corresponding translation in L1 (word-learning method) or with the picture of the object to which the word refers (picture-learning method), children were tested at different points in time. The results showed that the picture-based method leads to a better performance than the word-based method, but this effect was modulated by cognate status and age of learning.

Vermeer, A. (2011). Breadth and depth of vocabulary in relation to L1/L2 acquisition and frequency of input. Applied Psycholinguistics, 22, 217-234.

Two empirical studies set out to explore the relation between breadth and depth of word knowledge and to link these concepts with language acquisition and frequency of language input. In the first study, the breadth and depth of word knowledge of 50 Dutch monolingual and bilingual kindergartners were investigated using receptive vocabulary, description, and association tasks. The second study examined the relation between the probability of knowing a word and the input frequency of that word in 1,600 Dutch monolingual and bilingual 4- and 7-year-olds. The findings are that: a).there was no conceptual distinction between breadth and depth of vocabulary; b).breadth and depth were affected by the same factors for both monolingual and bilingual speakers; c).very high correlations were found between monolingual and bilingual speakers with respect to the probability of knowing a word, which was strongly related to the input frequency in primary education.

Yuko, H. (2010). The Categorical Facilitation Effects on L2 Vocabulary Learning in a Classroom Setting. RELC Journal, 41(3), 301-312.

This study investigated which if the five types of word lists (synonyms, antonyms, categorical, thematic, and arbitrary) facilitated L2 vocabulary learning in a classroom setting. The participants were classified into four clusters according to their learning styles, and the study compared the relative effectiveness of the types of word list on different types of learners. The results showed that the most effective type of word list did not vary according to student clusters: all of the learners memorized the words in the categorical list more effectively than those in the other lists. Hence, the type of word list had a stronger effect on the efficacy of vocabulary learning than the individual learning style did.

30. Rimla Tariq Changi - October 28, 2011

Name: Rimla Tariq Changi
Matric card no: PGP 110034
Research Topic: To determine and analyse if prior knowledge is accessed by Chinese educated students aged 7-12 when provided with authentic texts with no pre-loaded materials.
1. Brantmeier Cindy.; (2005) Effects of Reader’s knowledge, text type and test type on L1 and L2 reading comprehension in Spanish. The Modern Language Journal, 89 (1), pp. 7-53 Retrieved 21 October 2011, from JSTOR database.

The study examines how reader’s subject knowledge, analogy versus non-analogy difference in text type, and type of test affect first language and second language reading comprehension. These groups of people of different proficiency levels were given two scientific passages, two versions each. Analysis as measured by three assessment tasks revealed that subject knowledge related significantly to reading comprehension. However, additional analogies of the scientific texts did not compensate for the lack of subject knowledge. Participants also scored higher on non-analogy version of both texts than on the analogy version when assessed by the recall test.

2. Chi Yanping., Knell Ellen., Qiang Haiyan., Pei Miao., Siegel Lind S., Zhao Lind S.,& Zhao Wei., (2007), Early English Immersion and Literacy in Xi’an China. The Modern Language Journal, 91 (3), pp. 395-417. Retrieved 25 October 2011, from JSTOR database.

This research is about an investigation done on the English and Chinese language performance of students enrolled in early English immersion in a Chinese primary school. Factors that could predict successful English word recognition were also researched. 183 participants were tested in both Chinese and English word identification, phonological awareness, oral proficiency, letter name knowledge and vocabulary. The research found out that immersion students performed significantly better than non-immersion groups on measures of English vocabulary, word identification and oral proficiency. They also had no detrimental effects on their Chinese character reading. Phonological awareness and letter name knowledge were strong predictors of English word identification for the immersion students.

3. Gibbons Pauline. (2003). Mediating Language Learning: Teacher interactions with ESL students in a content- based classroom. TESOL Quarterly, 37 (2), pp. 247-273. Retrieved 14 October 2011, from JSTOR database.

This research talks about how teacher-student talk in a content-based classroom contribute to learner’s language development. The data reveals that both teachers and learners are active participants in the co-construction of language and curriculum knowledge.

4. Lee B. Abraham (2007). Second language reading comprehension and vocabulary learning with multimedia. Hispania, 90 (1), pp. 98-108. Retrieved 19 October 2011, from JSTOR database.

This article talks about the impact of the World Wide Web and emerging multimedia tools and software providing students with opportunities to comprehend authentic tests to learn new information on authentic written and spoken texts. 3 groups of people were used the first being a control group where no glosses were provided, the second used as a group were students were given a choice to look up meanings and the third were they were forced to look up meanings. The research concludes that there are no significant difference in the performance between choice and forced look up groups especially in the areas of vocabulary and summary.

5. Liu Jun.; (2004), Effects of Comic strips of L2 learner are reading comprehension. TESOL Quarterly, 38 (2), pp. 225-243. Retrieved 25 October 2011, from JSTOR database.
The article reports the results of an experiment investigating the role of comic strips on ELS learners’ reading comprehension. The students’ proficiency level were estimated and students were organized in low-intermediate level proficiency group and a high-intermediate level proficiency group. Students in each group were presented with either a high-level or a low-level text and the text was provided with or without a comic strip. Two- way and three-way ANOVAs run on data from 107 immediate recall protocols reveal that the low-level students receiving the high-level text with the comic strip scored significantly higher than their counterparts receiving high-level text only. They also show that providing a comic strip with the high-level text did not enhance the high-level students’ recall. The research offers pedagogical suggestions in light of the dual coding theory and refers to other cognitive theories such as mental model, noticing and repetition hypothesis.

6. Macaro Ernesto.; (2006), Strategies for language learning and for language use: revising the theoretical framework. The Modern Language Journal, 90 (3), pp. 320-337. Retrieved 25 October 2011, from JSTOR database.

The article reviews the problems related to strategy research and proposes a revised theoretical framework in which strategies are differentiated from skills, processes and styles. The article proposes a series of features essential to describing a strategy. The framework aims to enhance current theory.

7. Myhill Debra., Brackley Margaret (2004). Making Connections: Teacher’s use of children’s prior knowledge in whole class discourse. British Journal of Educational Studies. 52 (3), pp. 263-275. Retrieved 21 October 2011, from JSTOR database.

The paper investigates teachers’ use of prior knowledge in whole class teaching contexts and how teacher conceptualise prior knowledge which has been taught in school. The paper considers how teacher make connections between new learning and prior learning, and how these connections can variously support or confound children’s acquisition of new knowledge and understanding.

8. Nassaji Hossein (2006). The relationship between depth of vocabulary knowledge and L2 learners’ lexical inferencing strategy use and success. The Modern Language Journal, 90 (3), pp. 387-401. Retrieved 15 October 2011, from JSTOR database.

This article talks about the relationship between English as a second language (ESL) learners’ depth of vocabulary knowledge, their lexical inferencing strategy use and success in deriving a meaning from context. 10 unknown words are given to the participants and they are asked to derive meanig from the context. The researcher used thinking aloud strategies to understand learners’ inferencing strategies. The research provides empirical data that can be used for prior knowledge research as it supports that lexical inferencing is meaning construction process that is significantly influenced by the learner’s prior semantic system.

9. O’ Donnell Mary E.; Finding middle ground in second language reading: Pedagogic Modifications that increase comprehensibility and vocabulary acquisition while preserving authentic text features. (2009). The Modern Language Journal, 93 (4), pp. 512. Retrieved 21 October 2011, from JSTOR database.

The research uses a quantitative approach to explore the use of textual elaboration as a modification option for literary texts in an intermediate- level Spanish as a second language (L2) course. The results suggest that with elaborative modifications, literary texts could have an expanded role in L2 instruction for lower proficiency students and that these learners who read short literary texts were able to recall more information and identify more vocabulary from the texts. The research also suggests that students who read unmodified texts that were easier benefited the least from these modifications.

10. Sagara Suria., Alba Mathew., (2006). The key is in the keyword: L2 vocabulary learning methods with beginning learners of Spanish. The Modern Language Journal 90 (2), pp. 228-243. Retrieved 21 October 2011, from JSTOR database.

This study investigates the effectiveness of 3 methods of learning vocab among beginning L2 learners. The fist method consists of memorizing the first L1 translation of a new L2 word by rehearsal. The second method uses semantic mapping to conceptually relate L2 word in a diagram. The third method uses the key method which involves associating the L2 word with a L1 keyword that is acoustically similar and then connecting the L1 translation to the L2 word. Results reveal that the keyword method with phonological keywords and direct L1 keyword translation leads to a better L2 vocabulary learning at early stages of acquisition.

11. Scott A. Crossley., Max M. Louwerse., Phillip M. McCarthy and Danielle S.McNamara (2007), A Linguistic analysis of simplified and authentic texts. The Modern Language Journal, 91 (1), pp. 15-30. Retrieved 21 October 2011, from JSTOR database.

The research questions whether to use authentic or simplified reading texts as a means of input for beginning and intermediate L2 learners. The purpose of the research is to provide an exploratory study to find out the differences between both approaches and the implications it may have on L2 learning. The research uses the computational tool Coh-Metrix and hopes to provide material developers, publishers, and classroom teachers the data to judge more accurately the value of both authentic and simplified texts.
12. Shapiro Amy (M). (2004) How including prior knowledge as a subject variable may change outcomes of learning research. American Educational Research Journal, 41(1), pp. 159-189.

This research explains that methodologies such as functional stimuli and domain- novice subjects may be insufficient in use as a control for prior knowledge learning research. 2 experiments were conducted where the first had students reading from text about fictional places and events and the second asked students who were novice in a cognition course to read several advanced texts. The experiments conclude by demonstrating that prior knowledge methodologies may be insufficient to prevent it from influencing learning outcomes and urges researchers to include measures of prior knowledge in their analyses.
13. Watson-Grego Karen Ann.; (2004), Mind, Language and Epistemology: Toward a Language Socialization Paradigm for SLA. The Modern Language Journal, 88 (3), pp. 331-350. Retrieved 25 October 2011, from JSTOR database.

The research recognizes that cognition originates in social interaction and is shaped by cultural and socio-political processes. These processes play a major role in cognitive development. The research lays out issues and argues for a language socialization paradigm for SLA that is consistent with the new research.

14. Wortham Stanton (2004). The interdependence of social identification and learning. American Educational Research Journal, 41 (3), pp. 715-750. Retrieved 17 October 2011, from JSTOR database.

This research talks about the relationship between students and teacher and how social identification and learning systematically inter-relate and constitute each other. Prior knowledge learning and the curriculum is used by both the student and teacher in developing social identity.
15. Yamashita Junko.; (2007), The Relationship of Reading attitudes between L1 and L2: An investigation of adult EFL learners in Japan. TESOL Quarterly, 41 (1), pp. 81-105. Retrieved 25 October 2011, from JSTOR database.

The research investigates the transfer of reading attitudes from L1 to L2, drawing on the linguistic threshold hypothesis. Participants were all Japanese university-level EFL students. Their L1 and L2 reading attitudes were estimated using Likert scale and their L2 proficiency was measured using tests. Multiple regression analysis identified significant contributions of L1 reading attitudes in explaining L2 attitudes. The contribution of L2 was significant but small. No evidence substantiated that L1 reading attitude increases higher levels of L2 proficiency. The study says that reading attitudes transfer from L1 to L2 but not reading abilities and strategies.

31. SHARILA CHRISTIE - November 24, 2011

Dear Dr. Jessie this is my edited annotated bibliography with all ISI articles. Tq.

NAME : SHARILA CHRISTIE
MATRIC NO: PGP 110003
DATE: 14/10/2011
TASK 1: ANNOTATED BIBLIOGRAPHY
TOPIC : SELF- ASSESSMENT IN WRITING: DEVELOPING ESL
LEARNERS RESPONSIBILITY TO ENHANCE WRITING
THROUGH SUCCESS CRITERIA.
Article 1
1. Asencion-Delaney, Y. & Collentine, J. (2011). A multidimensional analysis of a written L2 Spanish corpus. Applied Linguistics, 32(3): 299-322.

The study describe understanding of how learners employ lexical and grammatical phenomena to communicate in writing in different types of inter-language discourse. A multidimensional (factor) analysis of a corpus of L2 Spanish writing (generated by second- and third-year, university-level learners was performed. The analysis uncovered four significant clusters that can be considered distinct discourse types with two main stylistic variations: narrative (characterized by verbal features) and expository (characterized by nominal features). Findings provide examples of the multiple ways that stylistic sophistication and linguistic complexity occur in the L2. Although the Spanish learners’ discourse did not show signs of syntactic complexity the frequent use of nominal features affects informational density due to the presence of numerous derivational morphemes and the learners’ verbal inflections did vary, which is a sign of L2 development.

Article 2
2. Bitchener, J. & Knoch, U. (2010). The contribution of written corrective feedback to language development: A ten month investigation. Applied Linguistics, 31(2): 193-214.

This article discusses some of the theoretical issues raised against the practice, outlines the status of recent empirical evidence and presents a 10-month study of the effects of WCF on two functional uses of the English article system given to 52 low-intermediate ESL students in Auckland, New Zealand. Assigned to four groups (direct corrective feedback, written, and oral meta-linguistic explanation; direct corrective feedback and written meta-linguistic explanation; direct corrective feedback only; the control group), the students produced five pieces of writing (pre-test, immediate post-test, and three delayed post-tests). Each of the treatment groups outperformed the control group on all post-tests and no difference in effectiveness was found between the three treatment groups.

Article 3
3. Charles, M. (2006). The construction of stance in reporting clauses: A cross-disciplinary study of theses. Applied Linguistics, 27(3): 492-518.

The study investigates the construction of stance in finite reporting clauses with that-clause complementation. Corpus-based approach is used in methodology The data are drawn from two corpora of theses in contrasting disciplines: a social science-politics and a natural science-materials science. A network for the analysis of reporting clauses is presented which sets out the major alternatives available to academic writers and enables stance to be linked systematically to grammatical and semantic patterns of use. Quantitative and qualitative analysis of the data leads to the identification of an important function of reporting clauses in academic writing: their use to report the writer’s own work. The findings are writer visibility seen in politics than materials. However, despite the superficial objectivity and impersonality of writing in the natural sciences, it is argued that skilled exploitation of the interplay between averral and attribution allows writers to construct a stance that is both clear and pervasive.

Article 4
4. Cheng, A. (2008). Analyzing genre exemplars in preparation for writing: The case of an L2 graduate student in the ESP genre-based instructional framework of academic literacy. Applied Linguistics, 29(1): 50-71.

This study focused on a Chinese-speaking graduate student in electrical engineering who analyzed genre exemplars in preparation for writing. The data reveals this student’s two prominent and interrelated ways of analyzing the discourse-level generic features in discipline-specific genre exemplars. They are (a) rhetorical, as evidenced in his consistent attention not only to the generic features, but also to the underlying rhetorical parameters, such as reader, writer, and purpose and (b) evaluative, as shown in his increasingly sophisticated evaluation of the discourse-level generic features in the genre exemplars. The student’s rhetorical and evaluative reading of the genre exemplars highlights the potential power of genre as an explicit, supportive tool for building academic literacy.

Article 5
5. Frazier, S. (2007). Telling of rememberances ‘Touch off’ by student reports in group work in undergraduate writing classes. Applied Linguistics, 28(2): 189-210.

The study is to describe the sequential structures of a kind of talk typical to group work: students presenting ‘reports’ about early written drafts. Specifically, the data analysis in this paper looks at how a student’s report ‘touches off’ another student’s telling of a remembrance caused by the report, which in turn offers a complex analysis of the just-prior report, allowing the speaker to prove rather than merely claim an understanding of the report. Touched-off remembrances (TORs) are marked in other ways than just through talk: sometimes group members orient to them via understandings of the report-giver’s gestures and other embodied features.The study, which analyzes video data of naturally occurring interactions between students in writing classes, draws its theoretical basis from conversation-analytic literature on ‘second stories’ and on analytic approaches to the way talk, gesture, and other forms of embodiment produce action in the course of interaction.

Article 6
6. Hansun, Z.W. (2005). Peer tutoring in a graduate writing centre: Identify, Expertise, and advice resisting. Applied Linguistics, 26(2): 141-168.

The studydescribe how advice resisting is accomplished in ‘peer tutoring’ in a graduate writing centre. Peer tutoring constitutes a privileged site for observing the complexities of advising episodes. Tutoring sessions between a tutor and a graduate student have been audio-taped and transcribed in detail. Methodology of conversation analysis is used. Writer show how the tutee resists the tutor’s advice on general academic writing issues, content-related matters, or the mechanics of writing. The findings are the pattern of resistance can be accounted for by the tutee’s identity claim as well as the competing expertise carried by the tutor and the tutee.

Article 7
7. Harwood, N. (2005). ‘We do not seem to have a theory…The theory I present here attempts to fill this gap’: Inclusive and exclusive pronouns in academic writing. Applied Linguistics, 26(3): 343-375.

This research is a qualitative and quantitative corpus-based study of how academic writers use the personal pronouns I and inclusive and exclusive we. Using a multidisciplinary corpus comprising of journal research articles (RAs) from the fields of Business and Management, Computing Science, Economics, and Physics, I present data extracts which reveal how I and we can help writers create a sense of newsworthiness and novelty about their work, showing how they are plugging disciplinary knowledge gaps. The quantitative analysis reveals that while all instances of we in the Business and Management articles and all but one of the instances of we in the Economics articles are inclusive, only a third of the instances in the Computing articles and under 10 per cent of the instances in the Physics articles are inclusive. The study ends with a brief discussion of what a few English for Academic Purposes (EAP) textbooks tell students about inclusive and exclusive pronouns, and offers some suggestions for EAP classroom activities.

Article 8
8. Lee, Y. W., Gentile, C. & Kantor, R.(2010). Toward automated multi-trait scoring of essays: Investigating links among holistic, analytic, and text feature scores. Applied Linguistics, 31(3): 391-417.

The study was to investigate the distinctness and reliability of analytic (or multi-trait) rating dimensions and their relationships to holistic scores and e-rater® essay feature variables in the context of the TOEFL® computer-based test (TOEFL CBT) writing assessment. Data analyzed in the study were holistic and multi-trait essay scores provided by human raters and essay feature variable scores computed by e-rater® (version 2.0) for two TOEFL CBT writing prompts. It was found that (i) all of the six multi-trait scores were not only correlated among themselves but also correlated with the holistic score, (ii) high correlations obtained among holistic and multi-trait scores were largely attributable to the impact of essay length on both holistic and multi-trait scoring, and (iii) some strong associations were confirmed between several e-rater variables and multi-trait rating dimensions. Implications are discussed for improving the multi-trait scoring of essays, refining e-rater essay feature variables, and validating automated essay scores.

Article 9
9. Lorenzo, F., Casal, S. & Moore, P.(2010). The effects of content and language integrated learning in European education: Key findings from the Andalusian bilingual sections evaluation project. Applied Linguistics, 31(3): 418-442.

This article focus on key findings from one of the first large-scale,
multidimensional Content and Language Integrated Learning CLIL evaluation projects. The study begin by outlining the emergence of European CLIL and comparing it with other non-European bilingual education initiatives and then narrow the scope to Southern Spain, where the study was conducted. The study
was also conducted within Andalusian Bilingual Sections programme, one of the cornerstones of the government’s Plurilingualism Promotion Plan (2005. The findings was focus on specific areas that believe make significant contributions to some of the key concerns in contemporary CLIL research including the linguistic competence of CLIL learners, the question of starting age, the distribution and functionalities of L2 use in CLIL classrooms, and the ways in which CLIL appears to be impacting on the educational system in general.

Article 10
10. North, S. (2005). Disciplinary variation in the use of theme in undergraduate essays. Applied Linguistics, 26(3): 431-452.

The article is based on an analysis of essays written within an Open University course in the history of science, using a systemic functional approach to examine whether the students’ use of theme may vary according to their disciplinary background. Students from an ‘arts’ background were found to achieve significantly higher grades than those from a ‘science’ background. This could be related to a greater tendency to present knowledge as constructed, using themes which framed the discussion as a matter of interpretation rather than fact. The findings support the hypothesis that students’ writing is shaped by their disciplinary background, suggesting that success in writing for one course may be affected by writing experiences in previous courses.

Article 11
11. Pichette, F., Serres, L, d & Lafontaine, M. (2011). Sentence reading and writing for second language vocabulary acquisition. Applied Linguistic.

This study compares the relative effectiveness of reading and writing sentences for the incidental acquisition of new vocabulary in a second language. It also examines if recall varies according to the concreteness of target words. Participants were 203 French-speaking intermediate and advanced English as second language (ESL) learners, tested for incidental acquisition of 16 rare concrete, or abstract L2 words. Immediate and delayed cued recall was used to assess acquisition. Results from immediate recall show superior recall for writing tasks over reading tasks, and for concrete words over abstract words. However, delayed recall scores suggest that this superiority disappears over time.

Article 12
12. Ross, S.J. (2005). The impact of assessment method on foreign language proficiency growth. Applied Linguistics, 26(3): 317-342.

The article describe differential language learning growth accruing from the use of formative assessment in direct comparison with more conventional summative assessment procedures in a longitudinal design. Eight cohorts of foreign language learners (N = 2215) participated in this eight-year longitudinal study. Four early cohorts in a 320-hour, four-semester EFL program were assessed with mainly conventional end-of-term summative assessments and tests. Contrasted with these four cohorts were four latter cohorts of learners who engaged in considerably more formative assessment practices. The products of formative assessments were also converted into manifest variables in the form of four time-varying grade point averages directly comparable to those generated by the four earlier cohorts. In addition the participants completed three time-varying EAP proficiency measures. The findings indicate that formative assessment practices yield substantive skill-specific effects on language proficiency growth.

Article 13
13. Sauro, S. & Smith, B. (2010). Investigating L2 performance in text chat. Applied Linguistics 31(4): 554-577.

This study describes the linguistic complexity and lexical diversity of both overt and covert L2 output produced during synchronous written computer-mediated communication, also referred to as chat. Video enhanced chat-scripts produced by university learners of German (N = 23) engaged in dyadic task-based chat interaction were coded and analyzed for syntactic complexity (ratio of clauses to c-units), productive use of grammatical gender, and lexical diversity (Index of Guiraud). Results show that chat output that exhibits evidence of online planning in the form of post-production monitoring displays significantly greater linguistic complexity and lexical diversity than chat output that does not exhibit similar evidence of online planning. These findings suggest that L2 learners do appear to use the increased online (i.e. moment-by-moment) planning time afforded by chat to engage in careful production and monitoring.

Article 14
14. Szpara, M. Y. & Wylie, E. C. (2008). Writing differences in teacher performance assessments: An investigation of African American Language and edited American English. Applied Linguistics, 29(2): 244-266.

The study examined the writing styles of African American test takers in a National Board for Professional Teaching Standards (NBPTS) portfolio entry from the Middle Childhood/Generalist Certificate, as compared with the writing styles of European American test takers. The use of features other than Edited American English was examined as a possible source of construct-irrelevant variance in assessors’ scoring judgments. Thirty-two written commentaries, 18 from African American candidates and 14 from European American candidates, were coded for grammatical, lexical, and discourse features. The coding frame identified features of African American Language (AAL) and Speech Code Errors (SCE). Instances of AAL were fewer than instances of SCE and clustered according to potential users of AAL.

Article 15
15. Tan, B. T. (2011). Language creativity and co-emergence of form and meaning in creative writing task. Applied Linguistics, 32(2): 215-235.

This study examines the opportunities for creative language use and emergence of complex language in creative writing tasks with high formal constraints (acrostics) and those with looser formal constraints (similes). It indicates that formal constraints lead to complex and creative language use, transforming familiar utterances into unfamiliar ones, shaping and reshaping learners’ language syntactically and lexically, paradigmatically, and syntagmatically. The study suggests that for learners’ language to develop in complexity, conditions need to be set, requiring them to access the L2 directly to construct new ideas and that opportunities are needed for both L2 forms and meaning to co-evolve.

32. Princess Lina - December 15, 2011

NORAZLINA BINTI RAFI AHMAD
(PGP110020)

Title: The Use Of Bahasa Melayu In The Teaching Of English Among Primary School Students In SK Bukit Sentosa

Annotated Bibliography 1
Dash,P.(2002) English Only (EO) In The Classroom: Time For A Reality. Asian EFL Journal , , 1-20. Retrieved 27 November 2011, from
http://www.asian-efl-journal.com/dec_02_pd.pdf

The article tells us about the summary of the arguments for English Only (EO) vs the (BI) bilingual approach on English not being used sufficiently in the classroom. This article focuses on students Korean middle school students and Korean teachers. The author is using a Quasi research, Action research and observation have been conducted in order to help teachers to better introduce and integrate classroom English into their lesson. Their findings found that Korean Education Department need to further equip and train the teachers in order to facilitate the class in using more of English rather than the native language.

Annotated Bibliography 2
Dash, P. (2002). L1 / L2 Learning in Children: Explicitly Reframed.
Asian EFL Journal, 1-16.

This article is about scholars whom are trying to find out the answers of whether children learn second language implicitly, the same same way they have learn L1. One of the scholars, Dulay and Burt (1974) have mentioned that the use of L1 does not effect the development of a child in learning SLA. In conclusion, the author summarizes that learning a language in L1 and L2 are similar.

Annotated Bibliography 3
Dr.Mufeed, Jadallah. & Dr. Fuad Hassan (2011). A Review of Some New Trends in Using L1 in
the EFL Classroom. Retrieved 25 November 2011
http://www.qou.edu/english/conferences/firstNationalConference/pdfFiles/drMufeed.pdf

The article focuses on the arguments of whether it effective or not using L1 in teaching. The article focuses on the EFL learners. A few researchers have state their their views about whether they are agree or not of using L1 in the EFL classroom. Two approaches which is the Monolingual and Bilingual approach in terms of using L1 in the classroom. The findings found that there is no rule that you should never use L1 in learning English.

Annotated Bibliography 4
Fakharzadeh, M. (2009). Why’s of Pro-First Language Use Arguments in ESP Context
ESP World, 5 (26), 1-6. Retrieved 25 November 2011, from
http://www.esp-world.info/Articles_26/Original/WHYs.pdf

The research is on how to inculcate the teaching methodologies in ESL classroom.The results proved that English language anxiety and self-efficacy, both are major predictors of English language performance among students.

Annotated Bibliography 5
Goh, H.S. & Fatimah Hashim (2006). Use of L1 in L2 reading comprehension among tertiary ESL learners Reading in a foreign language, 18 (1), 1-26. Retrieved 26 November 2011, from
http://www.eric.ed.gov/PDFS/EJ759834.pdf

This article discusses about the insights of first language (L1) use while reading second language (L2) texts in a collaborative situation among tertiary ESL learners.The subject of this study are four undergraduate students from University Pendidikan Sultan Idris. The methods used were audio-recording, video-recording an interview. The findings from the study shows that the L2 students used the L1 language frequently and the reason for this is they switch between L1 and L2 is to understand the L2 comprehension text better.

Annotated Bibliography 6
Liu J. (2009). Teacher questioning strategies. Modern English Teacher, 18 (2), 60-63

The study investigates the effectiveness of teacher questioning in English teaching. The sample of this study was taken from a classroom recording for the author’s research “Teacher Classroom Discourse” in 2007. A few strategies has been proposed in order for the students to answer better instead of being quite. There are the types of questioning technique to ask, who to ask in order to be fair and the wait-time during questioning session. This article is beneficial for teachers as if the questioning techniques are well design, it can probably help the teacher to create a better teaching and learning atmosphere in the classroom.

Annotated Bibliography 7
Nor Hashimah Jalaluddin. (2008). The mastery of English language among lower secondary school students in Malaysia: A linguistic analysis. European Journal of Social Sciences, 7 (2), 1-14. Retrieved 8 October 2011, from http://www.eurojournals.com/ejss_7_2_08.pdf

The research is about students who still not able to acquire or even comprehend the language even after eleven years of learning the language at primary and secondary school. A study has been conducted on 315 students Form Two students from urban, sub-urban and rural schools. The method used in this research is a Cloze Test. The result shows that the morphological and syntactical difference between the Malay language and English has been one of the major factors in students’ inability to successfully acquire the English language.

Annotated Bibliography 8
Oluwole, D. A. (2008). The impact of mother tongue on students’ achievement in English language in Junior Secondary Certificate Examination in Western Nigeria. Journal Social Science, 17 (1), 41-49. Retrieved 8 October 2011, from http://www.krepublishers.com/02-Journals/JSS/JSS-17-0-000-000-2008-Web/JSS-17-1-001-08-Abst-Text/JSS-17-1-041-08-590-Oluwole-D-A/JSS-17-1-041-08-590-Oluwole-D-A-Tt.pdf

The research is conducted to investigate if mother tongue is solely the cause of the students not performing well in their English language in the Junior School certificate Examination. The research focuses on 100 male and female students drawn from various government schools. The method used is a survey questionnaire. The findings reveal that not only mother tongue but there is also other factors that influence the student’s poor performance in English language in the Junior School Certificate Examination.

Annotated Bibliography 9
Paul, N. (2000). The role of the first language in foreign language Asian EFL Journal. 5 (2), 1-8. Retrieved 26 November 2011, from
http://www.asian-efl-journal.com/june_2003_PN.php

The research is about the use of second language in the foreign language classroom. For well balance learning, there were four strands taught which is listening, speaking, reading and writing. This is to show that the use of L1 will be helpful in helping the learners to understand the four stands better. In conclusion, the teachers need to show respect for the L1 learners and need to avoid doing things that make the L1 seem inferior to English.

Annotated Bibliography 10
Radha, N. (2009). Cross Linguistic Transfer between L1 and L2 Text: Learning Strategies Used by Bilingual Malay Tertiary Learners. European Journal of Social Sciences, 7 (3), 1-12.Retrieved 25 November 2011, from
http://www.eurojournals.com/ejss_7_3_11.pdf

The research is about the learning strategies used by proficient bilingual Malaysian tertiary learners to read Bahasa Melayu (L1) and English (L2) texts to examine if there is cross linguistic transfer between the ability to read in Bahasa Melayu and in English. The study focuses on Malay undergraduates, majoring in English Language studies, National University Malaysia. The methods used were recordings and interviews. The finding shows that even though the L2 learners were given L1 texts to read nut they never had any problems reading it but they had problems reading L2 text. This could be due to that they may be comfortable with reading it as they use to read it in the school.

Annotated Bibliography 11
Vercoe, T. (2006). Taking Advantage of Cognitive Difference of Asians and Westerners in The Teaching of English. Asian EFL Journal, 8 (3). Retrieved 28 November 2011, from
http://www.asian-efl-journal.com/Sept_06_tv.php

The study is to examine some of the findings of Nisbett (2003) and how it can be applied to the EFL classroom to enhance students understanding on English. The author have stated that recent developments in cognitive psychology have suggested definite differences in the way Westerners and North-East Asians perceive and think about the world may have and influence for L1 interference in L2 learning. In the findings, it is said that modern pedagogy of ESL / EFL and the cognitive styles differences between westerners and Easterners may still be in the early stages, but it still can be applied in the teaching of English.

Annotated Bibliography 12
Wu, Y. (2008). Language learning strategies used by students at different proficiency levels. Asian EFL Journal, 10 (4) Retrieved 27 November 2011, from
http://www.asian-efl-journal.com/December_08_ylw.php

The research is about to probe the difference of language learning strategy use between higher and lower English proficiency level among the students. The subjects of this study are students from the National Chin-Yi University of Technology and were divided according to their proficiency level. The methods used were an English Proficiency Test and Strategy Inventory for language learning questionnaire. The findings conclude that higher proficiency students use language learning strategies more often than lower proficiency students.

Annotated Bibliography 13
Zhao, N. (2007). A study of high school students’ English learning anxiety. Asian EFL Journal, 9 (3), 22-34.Retrieved 28 November 2011, from
http://www.asian-efl-journal.com/September_2007_EBook_editions.pdf

The research is conducted to explore the anxiety of learning English language among Chinese high school students in the classroom. In a quantitative survey conducted by a lecturer from Shandong University of Technology, on 115 students, average age 16, it is found out that the male students indeed had higher anxiety than female students in learning the English language. The methods used throughout this research were questionnaire and test. The findings show that the results indeed indicated that students do have a very high anxiety in learning the English language especially during test.

Princess Lina - December 15, 2011

Dear Dr Jessie,

I have resend you a copy of the annotated bibliography since I have changed the research topic.

A few of the journals are non-ISI journals as I could not find any article that are related to my research topic. Most of the articles are more on technology and web based related. Sorry Dr. Jessie, I have tried my best trying to find articles that are ISI not only from UM library but also from websites but due to the topic restriction, I could not find any. Sorry again, Dr. Jessie

33. SITI AISHAH BINTI SAHAIRI (PGP 110013) - January 3, 2012

Dr Jessie, this is the annotated bibliography of my new topic.

Proposed Research Topic:
MOTIVATING STUDENTS WITH WEB 2.0 TECHNOLOGY

Journal 1
Bagno, E., Levy, S., & Eylon, B.-S. (2006). How can a website for physics teachers serve as a tool for professional development? Journal of Science Education and Technology, 15(3), 215 – 219. Retrieved November 21 2011, from http://ezproxy.um.edu.my:2100/stamp/stamp.jsp?tp=&arnumber=5545452

This study investigated how an online activity can be used to teach the misconception faced by students in understanding Newton’s 3rd Law. 151 Physics teachers in Israel were involved in this study. Based on the survey, it is found that teachers showed their interest towards using website in their teaching.

Journal 2
Buendia, F., & Cano, J.-C. (2006). Webgeneos : A generative and web-based learning architecture to teach operating systems in undergraduate courses. [Electronic Version]. IEEE Transactions on Education, 49(4), 464 – 473.

In a study conducted at Polytechnic University of Valencia, Spain, two Bachelor degrees and one Master degree of Computer Engineering students were involved. By comparing students’ grades, it is found that the use of Webgeneos in learning process could improve students’ grades. The improvement was about 13% and this showed how web technology was really helpful in learning.

Journal 3
Gillet, D., Ngoc, A.V.N., & Rekik, Y. (2005). Collaborative web-based experimentation in flexible engineering education. [Electronic Version]. IEEE Transactions on Education, 48(4), 696 – 704.

The study discussed how a collaborative web-based experimentation being used in engineering education. It took place at Ecole Polytechnique Federale de Lausanne, Switzerland and involved ninety six students of Micro Engineering degree programme. Questionnaires were used to collect data and it is found that web-based experimentation succeeded to promote active learning.

Journal 4
Grigoriadou, M., Kanidis, E., & Gogoulou, A. (2006). A web-based educational environment for teaching the computer cache memory. [Electronic Version]. IEEE Transactions on Education, 49(1), 147 – 156.

A quasi experiment study was done at University of Athens. It aimed to investigate how a web-based educational setting being used for the teaching of computer cache memory. At the end of the study, it is found that this Web-based setting could support and enhanced the learning process effectively.

Journal 5
Hsinchun, C., Xin, L., Chau, M., Yi-Jen, H., & Chungju, T. (2009). Using open web APIs in teaching web mining. [Electronic Version]. IEEE Transactions on Education, 52(4), 482 – 490.

Observation and survey were used to gather data for using open web APIs to develop web mining applications. Graduate students of Department of Management Information, University Arizona showed that the use of open web APIs have improved their learning process.

Journal 6
Karakas, E., & Tekindal, S. (2008). The effects of Computer-Assisted Learning in teaching permanent magnet synchronous motors. [Electronic Version]. IEEE Transactions on Education, 51(4), 448 – 455.

Thirty one students of Technical Education Faculty, Koaceli University in Turkey were involved in this study. It aimed to find comparison between Computer-Assisted Learning (CAL) and traditional teaching method for the teaching of permanent magnet synchronous motors. Based on quasi experimental approach, it is found that CAL method was more effective than the traditional one. Students of experimental group showed a positive attitude towards CAL.

Journal 7
Marin, S.L.T., Garcia, F.J.B., Torres, R.M., Vazquez, S.G., & Moreno, A.J.L. (2005). Implementation of a web-based educational tool for Digital Signal Processing teaching using the Technological Acceptance Model. [Electronic Version]. IEEE Transactions on Education, 48(4), 632 – 641.

A study on the use of web-based educational tool for teaching Digital Signal Processing with the aid of Technological Acceptance Model was done at University of Seville, Spain. It involved 142 Telecommunication Engineering students. In this exploratory study, it is found out that there were external variables which had given positive influence on the use of web-based tool namely application-specific self efficacy, curiosity and enjoyment. This paper also discussed the strengths and weaknesses of the tool.

Journal 8
Minhong, W., Haiyang, J., Vijayan Sugumaran, Weijia, R., Jian, L. (2011). A web-based learning system for software test professionals. [Electronic Version]. IEEE Transactions on Education, 54(2), 263 – 272.

The empirical study was carried out to evaluate a web-based learning system by inviting 24 employees who are working or had previously worked with the Testing Unit of PEANUT, a software company in Mainland China. A performance-oriented approach was used in this study and the finding showed that this approach was effective.

Journal 9
Palma, L., Morrison, R.F., Enjeti, P.N., & Howze, J.W. (2005). Use of web-based materials to teach electric circuit theory. [Electronic Version]. IEEE Transactions on Education, 48(4), 729 – 734.

This study examined how web-based materials were used in the teaching of electric circuit theory. Undergraduate students of Electrical Engineering Department at Texas A&M University were introduced to WebCT in the learning of electric circuit theory. It is found that students became motivated to choose electrical and computer for their career in the future.

Journal 10
Ras, E., Carbon, R., Decker, B., & Rech, J. (2007). Experience management Wikis for reflective practice in software capstone projects. [Electronic Version]. IEEE Transactions on Education, 50(4), 312 – 320.

In a case study conducted at University of Kaiserslautern, Germany, a capstone project which lasts between two or three months was used to gather data in using Wikis for reflective practice purposes. It is found that, Wikis could improve communication and information sharing in learning.

Journal 11
Stafford, T.F. (2005). Understanding motivations for internet use in distance education. [Electronic Version]. IEEE Transactions on Education, 48(2), 301 – 306.

Eighty five students of Computer Technology course were chosen in this study to understand motivations for internet use in distance education class. Based on the survey, it is found that students were motivated to use internet communication resources in class.

Journal 12
Wei-Tek, T., Wu, L., Elston, J., & Yinong, C. (2011). Collaborative learning using Wiki web sites for Computer Science undergraduate education : A case study. [Electronic Version]. IEEE Transactions on Education, 54(1), 114 – 124.

In a case study conducted at Arizona State University, a collaborative approach was used to enhance student’s learning experience based on Web 2.0 principles. It is found that it could increase motivation level since most of the students felt this approach was exciting and rewarding.

34. Ivan Reibman - February 29, 2012

I like the efforts you have put in this, appreciate it for all the great content.

35. Eng and Caroline - March 22, 2012

Dear Dr. Jessie, here is our annotated bibliography.

NAME : ENG GEOK TOH
MATRIC NO : PGP 110053
NAME: CAROLINE BARNABAS
MATRIC NO : PGP110045

ASSIGNMENT DUE : 22 MARCH 2012

Research Topic: The effectiveness of using code switch in second language teaching and learning.

Dahl, T.I., Rice, C., Steffensen, M., & Amundsen, L. (2010) Is it language relearning or language reacquisition? Hints from a young boy’s code-switching during his journey back to his native language. International Journal of Bilingualism 2010 14: 490.
http://ijb.sagepub.com/content/14/4/490

The research is about a 2 year 11 month boy who had already achieved a balanced bilingualism in Norwegian and English and he went to USA for 15 months, then he went back to Norway. The boy showed great sensitivity to social and community norms, preferring to match his language to the preferences or ability of his interlocutors.

Saxana, M. (2009) Construction & deconstruction of linguistic otherness : Conflict & coopertative code=switching in (English/) bilingual classrooms. English Teaching :Practice and Critique September, 2009, Volume 8, Number 2, pp.167 – 187
http://education.waikato.ac.nz/research/files/etpc/files/2009v8n2art8.pdf pp.167 -187

A case study was done on how the use of L1 was problematised by the teachers and how it was resisted by the students in the interactive space of English classrooms in Brunei. The study helps us to appreciate the potential of the positive (rather than the negative) power, the constructive (rather than the non-cooperative) resistance and the resource (rather than the right) argument of L1 use in English classrooms.

Heugh, K. (2009) Contesting the monolingual practices of a bilingual to multilingual policy. English Teaching : Practice and Critique September, 2009, Volume 8, Number 2, pp.96 – 113 http://education.waikato.ac.nz/research/files/etpc/files/2009v8n2art5.pdf

The focus of this study is Zonnebloem Nest Senior School, an inner-city Cape Town school, to which poor. working class students go. The research has demonstrated that the accommodation of linguistic diversity appears to be not only accepted practice, but students appear to welcome it and acknowledge that it offers educational scaffolding.

Rose,C.S.A. (2010): Signalling L2 centrality, maintaining L1 dominance, teacher language choice in an ethnic minority primary classroom in the Lao PDR.
LANGUAGE AND EDUCATION Volume: 25 Issue: 1 Pages: 19-31 DOI: 10.1080/09500782.2010.511232 Published: JAN 2011

This study explores the languages practises of one teacher in a combined Grade 3 and 4 ethnic minority classroom. This teacher manages to balance the constraints on him to use Lao as the central language of teaching with his belief in using the students’ mother tongue to allow effective teaching and learning to occur. A more effective measure would be for the authority to provide adequate and up=to-date teacher training in the effective use of the mother tongue in teaching – if not within a formal bilingual primary education curriculum, then at least orally within the current curriculum framework.
Liu, J. (2010) Teachers’ Code-Switching to the L1 in EFL Classroom. The Open Applied Linguistics Journal, 2010,3, 10 – 23.
wwwbenthamscience.com/open/toalj/articlesV103/10TOALJ.pdf

The subjects, both the teachers and students were chosen from three Chinese universities with different backgrounds, cognitive styles and experiences. The findings show that code-switching to Chinese is a prevalent phenomenon in EFL classroom of Chinese classroom and it plays a significant role in English learning and teaching process.

Sun, Y.S. (2010) The functions of Code-switching in a Korean Sunday School. Heritage Language Journal, 7(1).
http://www.international.uda.edu/media/files/vol7_1-5Shin.pdf

The site of this study was located in Korea town in Los Angeles where the researcher carried out video and audio recordings of authentic teacher and student conversation held in the Sunday School of a church. The data suggests that code-switching in Korean in this setting constructs and reinforces social hierarchies. The switch to a particular language in bilingual discurse an also be used to signal ethnic identity. (Kroskrity, 1993,; Nishimura, 1995; Woolard ,1989).

Valdez, P.N.M. (2010). Critical insights on Pedagogical Code Switching in the Philippine Context. Readings in Language Studies, Volume 2.
http://www.dlsud.edu.ph/languagelearningcenter/llcjournal/%5BEDAGPFOCALCS .pdf

This study explores the functions of code-switching in the Philippines classroom. The findings prove that code-switching is a viable option for teaching and learning because it can be used for curriculum access, classroom management and interpersonal relations.
Yusuf, Y.Q. (2009). A Pragmatics Analysis of a Teacher’s Code-switching in a Bilingual Classroom. The Linguistics Journal December 2009.
http://www.linguistics-journal.com/December_2009_yy.php

The classroom under study consisted of 114 students of varied ethnicities and were all Malaysian citizens. The findings show that the lecturers mostly use code-switch for accuracy, especially with general concepts. It also found out that a bilingual classroom had the advantage of having the vocabulary to describe a wider range of concepts and ideas that may not even have appropriate words to articulate these fully in one language.
Grit Liebscher and Jennifer Dailey-O’Cain, (2005). Learner Code-Switching in the Content-Based Foreign Language Classroom. The Modern Language Journal, Vol. 89, No. 2 (Summer, 2005), pp. 234-247
Retrieved: http://www.jstor.org/stable/3588683 .

The research aims to identify the patterns of code switching which is used in foreign language classroom among the students and not the teacher. 12 female students between the age of 20 and 30 from the University of Alberta enrolled in the seminar of German language (L2). Eleven 45-minute segments of the 80-minute class sessions were recorded, including eight regular class sessions and three sessions where students gave presentations. The researcher concluded by saying that by allowing students to code-switch in activities relating to interaction discourse, L1 would open the opportunity for them to become more comfortable with the L2.

Dilin Liu, Gil-Soon Ahn, Kyung-Suk Baek, Nan-Ok, (2004). South Korean High School English Teachers’ Code Switching: Questions and Challenges in the Drive for Maximal Use of English in Teaching. TESOL Quarterly, Vol. 38, No. 4 (Winter, 2004), pp. 605
Retrieved: http://www.jstor.org/stable/3588282 .

This study shows the practice of code switch in the English lesson and how it affects the students’ behavior. The data were obtained by recording and analyzing 13 high school English classes, and the teachers and students comments on their beliefs in two questionnaires, one for teachers and one for students. The teacher used more English in the classroom lesson but used Korean language to explain difficult words.

Jennifer Dailey-O’Cain, Grit Liebscher,(2006) Language learners’ use of discourse markers as evidence for a mixed code, ‘International Journal of Bilingualism’ • Volume 10 • Number 1 • 2006, 89– 109
Retrieved: http://ijb.sagepub.com/content/10/1/89

This research focuses on code switch and code mixing in terms of the use of
discourse markers among the learners in an advanced German classroom interaction. It aim to identify how discourse marker encouraged code switching and the function of the occurrence of code mixing in terms of discourse markers. The discourse markers ‘so’ and ‘also’ have a functional use in the classroom community of practice which will be helpful for them in a natural bilingual system.

Vera F. Gutiérrez-Clellen , Gabriela Simon-Cereijido, Angela Erickson Leone, (2009). Code-switching in bilingual children with specific language impairment. International Journal of Bilingualism’ • Volume 13 • Number 1 • 2009, 91– 109
Retrieves: http://ijb.sagepub.com/content/13/1/91

58 children were asked to retell a story and they were also asked to look at a picture and talk about it. 40 children had typical language development and 18 children who had SLI (specific language impairment.) The researcher points out that Code switching requires the grammatical proficiency in both the languages. The present study was designed to explore these issues by examining the patterns of code switch of Spanish–English bilingual children with and without SLI (specific language impairment). The SLI students did not show any problem in developing code switch despite the grammatical deficiency.

Brian Hok-Shing Chan, (2008). Code-switching, word order and the lexical/functional category distinction. Lingua, Volume: 118 Issue: 6, Pages: 777-809 DOI: 10.1016/j.lingua.2007.05.

This paper aims to argue that functional heads determine the order of the code switched complements. The researcher based his study on various examples of sentence structure from different languages. The research presents his findings by using The Nulls Theory, X-bar Theory and The Matrix Language Frame Model. Prepositions have been found to behave as a functional.

Rebecca S. Wheeler, (2005). Teaching English in the World: Code-Switch to Teach Standard English. The English Journal, Vol. 94, No. 5 (May, 2005), pp. 108-112
Retrieved: http://www.jstor.org/stable/30047364 .

This study shows that African American ESL students often make the repeat the same grammatical mistakes in their writing despite being corrected by teacher many times. The study points out that contrastive analysis and code switching can add Standard English to the students’ linguistic toolboxes as will help them to see the difference in the grammatical system. By the end of the semester those who were taught Standard English by using code switch performed better than those who were taught using the traditional method.

Chad Nilep, 2006.“Code Switching” in Sociocultural Linguistics. Vol. 19. Boulder: University of Colorado.

This papers aim is to study code switching in terms of sociolinguistics. This study points out that code switch is not variety of language. Code switching is accomplished by parties in interaction, and the meaning of their behavior emerges from the interaction.


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